Contentious Politics: The Struggle For Democracy in Greater China

University of Nottingham (2018)

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Course Handbook


1. Introduction

Module Objectives.  How a comparative approach to the study of contemporary China can help us improve our understanding of the trajectory of social and political development in the People’s Republic of China (PRC), Taiwan and Hong Kong, from the late 1970s until the present.

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Lecture 1 Part 1

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Lecture 1 Part 2

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Seminar 1

Reading

Required Reading

Tony Saich on the Political culture of the Chinese Communist Party:

 

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Pye, Lucian (1978) ‘Communications and Chinese Political Culture,  Asian Survey, Vol.18, No.3, pp.221-246

Further Reading

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Diamond, Larry (1994) Political Culture and Democracy in Developing Countries (London: Lynne Rienner), Introductory Chapter, pp.1-27

Gold, Thomas B. (1997) ‘Taiwan:  Still Defying the Odds,’, Chapter in Larry Diamond et al, Consolidating the Third Wave Democracies: Themes and Perspectives, Volume II (Johns Hopkins University Press),  pp.162-191, especially reference to mainland Chinese political culture on pp. 167-168

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Pye, Lucian (1969) ‘Introduction: Political Culture and Political Development, Introductory chapter in Pye, Lucian & Sidney Verba, Political Culture and Political Development (New Jersey: Princeton University Press)

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Verba, Sidney (1969) ‘Conclusion: Comparative Political Culture,’ Concluding chapter in Pye, Lucian & Sidney Verba, Political Culture and Political Development (New Jersey: Princeton University Press)

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2. A Missed Historical Opportunity in the PRC, 1978-1989

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Lecture 2

The Democracy wall movement in 1978-79, the social and economic developments throughout the 1980s in the People’s Republic of China (PRC) which led to the anti-corruption movement in 1989, and its subsequent suppression by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) leadership on 4 June 1989.

Reading

Required Reading

Vogel, Ezra (2011) Deng Xiaoping and the Transformation of China (Harvard University Press):
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    13. Deng’s Art of Governing

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    14. Experiments in Guandong and Fujan

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    15. Economic Readjustment and Rural Reform, 1978-82

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    16. Accelerating Economic Growth and Opening, 1982-89

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    18. The Military: Preparing for Modernization

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    20. Beijing Spring

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    21. The Tiananmen Tragedy

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    24. Deng’s Place in History

Spence, Jonathan (1990) The Search for Modern China (New York: W.W. Norton), Chapters 24 and 26:
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    24. Redefining Revolution</p?

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    26. Testing the Limits

Saich, Tony (2001) Governance and Politics of China (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan)
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    Front matter (Contents, Abbreviations, etc.)

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    1. Introduction

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    2. China’s Changing Road to Development, 1949-1978

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    3. China Under Reform, 1978-2000

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    4. The Chinese Communist Party

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    5. The Central Governing Apparatus

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    6. Governance Beyond the Centre

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    7. Political Participation and Protest

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    8. The Chinese State and Society

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    9. Economic Policy

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    10. Social Policy

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    11. Foreign Policy

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    12. Challenges in the Twenty-First Century

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    Back matter (Further Reading, Bibliography, Index)

Further Reading

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Benton, Gregor (1980) ‘China’s Oppositions,’ New Left Review, Issue 122, p.59 (Access is only available from on campus)

Benton, Gregor (1982) Wild Lilies, Poisonous Weeds: Dissident Voices from People’s China (London: Pluto Press)

Black, George & Robin Munro (1993) Black Hands of Beijing: Lives of Defiance in China’s Democracy Movement (New York: John Wiley)

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Brodsgaard, Kjeld Erik (1981) ‘The Democracy Movement in China, 1978-79, Opposition Movements, Wall Poster Campaigns and Underground Journals,’  Asian Survey, Vol.21, No.7, pp.747-774

Ch’en, Jo-hsi (1982) Democracy Wall and the Unofficial Journals (Berkeley: University of California)

Garside, Roger (1981) Coming Alive: China After Mao (London: Deutsch)

Goldman, Merle (1994) Sowing the Seeds of Democracy in China: Political Reform in the Deng Xiaoping Era (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press):
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    Front matter (Contents, Preface and Major Figures)

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    1. The Democratic Elite

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    2. Hu Yaobang’s Intellectual Network

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    3. Political Openness, Literary Repression

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    4. The Campaign against Bai Hua and Other Writers

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    5. The Revival and Suppression of Political Discourse

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    6. Radical Revisions of Ideology and Political Procedures

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    7. Beyond the Limits of Discourse

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    8. The Campaign against Bourgeois Liberalization

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    9. The Return of the Democratic Elite

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    10. The Beginning of Organised Opposition

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    11. The Democratic Elite and Tiananmen

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    12. A New Kind of Intellectual Activist

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    Notes

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    Index

Goodman, David (1981) Beijing Street Voices: The Poetry and Politics of China’s Democracy Movement (London: Boyars)

Mackerras, Colin, Graham Young & Taneja Pradeep (1998) China Since 1978 (Melbourne: Longman), Chapters 2-5, 10-12:
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    2. Historical Background

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    3. Political History I: Two Joint Plenums and the Interim, 1978-1984

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    4. Political History II: The Worsening of Reform Problems, 1984-1989

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    5. Political History III: Crisis to Recovery, 1989-1992

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    10. Political Reform and the Chinese Communist Party

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    11. The Law

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    12. The Environment

Munro, Robin (1984) ‘China’s Democracy Movement: A Midwinter Spring,’ Survey, Vol.28, No.2, pp.70-98

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Rosen, Stanley (1985) ‘Guangzhou’s Democracy Movement in Cultural Revolution Perspective, The China Quarterly, Issue 101, pp.1-31

Shirk, Susan L. (1979) ‘Going Against the Tide: Political Dissent in China,’ Survey, Vol.24, No.1, pp.82-114

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Siu, Helen and Zelda Stern (1983) Mao’s Harvest: Voices from China’s New Generation (New York: Oxford University Press). Available to read on archive.org

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Wei, Jingsheng and Christina M. Torgeson (1979)  The Courage to Stand Alone: Letters from Prison and Other Writings (New York: Viking). Available to read on archive.org

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Wei, Jingsheng () The Fifth Modernization (summary)

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Wilson, Jeanne L. (1990) ‘The Polish Lesson: China and Poland, 1980-1990,’ Studies in Comparative Communism, Vol.23, Issue 3-4, pp.259-279

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3. Liberalisation in Taiwan, 1979-1992

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Lecture 3

Social movements in Taiwan in the late 1970s and early 1980s which created the ferment for the development of the political ‘dangwai’ movement (‘dangwai’ meaning outside the ruling Guomindang) and the subsequent foundation of Taiwan’s Democratic Progressive Party in 1986.  Whereas the door to multi-party democracy was shut in mainland China after 1989, the 1992 Legislative Yuan election in Taiwan ushered in an increasingly election-driven democratisation of the island state.

Reading

Required Reading

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Fulda, Andreas Martin (2002) ‘Reevaluating the Taiwanese Democracy Movement: A Comparative Analysis of Opposition Organizations Under Japanese and KMT Rule,’ Critical Asian Studies, Vol.34, No.3, pp.357-394

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Resar, Alyssa (2016) ‘Beyond National Humiliation: Taiwanese Identity Transformed,’ Harvard Political Review

Recommended Reading

Wachman, Alan (1994) Taiwan: National Identity and Democratization (New York: M. E. Sharpe)

Further Reading

Bau, Tzong-Ho, Denis Simon & Michael Kau (1992) Taiwan: Beyond the Economic Miracle, Chapter by Yung Mao Chao, ‘Local Politics on Taiwan, Continuity and Change,’ (New York: M. E. Sharpe)

Chang, Charles & Hung-Mao Tien (1996) Taiwan’s Electoral Politics and Democratic Transition, Chapter by Ming-Ton Chen, ‘Local Factions and Elections in Taiwan’s Democratization,’ (New York: M. E. Sharpe)

Leng, Tse-Kang (1996) The Taiwan-China Connection: Democracy and Development Across the Taiwan Straits (Boulder: Westview Press)

Leng, Shao-Chuan (1993) ‘Chiang Ching-Kuo’s Leadership in the Development of the Republic of China on Taiwan,’ Chapter by Andrew Nathan and Helena Ho, ‘Chiang Ching’s Decision for Political Reform,’ (Lanham: University Press of America)

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Rawnsley, Gary (2000) ‘The Media and Popular Protest in Pre-democratic Taiwan,’ Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television, Vol.20, No.4, pp.565-580

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Rigger, Shelley (1999) Politics in Taiwan: Voting for Democracy (London: Routledge) SEE SIDEBAR

Rigger, Shelley (1962) Why Taiwan Matters: Small Island, Global Powerhouse (Blackwell’s):
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    3. From Farmers to Manufacturers

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    4. From “Free China” to Democratic Taiwan

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    9. Why Taiwan Matters to America and the World

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Tien, Hung-mao (1989) The Great Transition: Political and Social Change in the Republic of China  (Stanford: Hoover Institution Press) Available to read on archive.org

Tsang, Steve & Hung-mao Tien (1989) Democratization in Taiwan: Implications for China, Chapter by Hung-mao Tien & Tun-jen Cheng, entitled ‘Crafting Democratic Institutions,’ (Basingstoke: Macmillan)

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Tien, Hung-mao & Yun-han Chu (1996) ‘Building Democracy in Taiwan,’ The China Quarterly, Vol.148, pp.1141-1170

Wu, Jaushieh Joseph (1995) Taiwan’s Democratization: Forces Behind the New Momentum (Hong Kong: Oxford University Press)

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4. The Gate of Heavenly Peace

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Lecture 4

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Seminar

Documentary: The Gate of Heavenly Peace (190 mins).  “In April 1989, students occupied Tiananmen Square, using the occasion of the death of Communist Party reformer Hu Yaobang to protest against government corruption and to call for political reform.  Ordinary Chinese followed their lead and, at the height of this protest movement, more than a million people marched in the streets of Beijing to support the students.  Mass demonstrations occurred in cities across China.  

In May 1989, the international media covered on China to cover the visit of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev.  They came for a summit but walked into what looked like a revolution: clamorous, colourful and highly photogenic.  The media painted moving portraits of idealistic pro-Western students willing to die for democracy, pitted against ageing Communist autocrats.  The reality was far more complex.

Student leaders disagreed about goals, strategies and tactics, and the government was divided as well.  Some leaders saw all protests as counter-revolutionary, but others were anxious to avert repression and push China in the direction of gradual political reform.  This film reveals how moderate voices were gradually cowed and then silenced by extremism and emotionalism on both sides.” 

Reading

Required Reading

Tiananmen Square Protests

 

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Walder, Andrew (1989) ‘The Political Sociology of the Beijing Upheaval of 1989,’ Problems of Communism, Vol.38, No.5, pp.30-40

Further Reading

Des Forges, Roger, Ning Luo and Yen-bo Wu (1993) Chinese Democracy and the Crisis of 1989: Chinese and American Reflections (New York: State University of New York Press)

Baum, Richard (1991) Reform and Reaction in Post-Mao China: The Road to Tiananmen,  Chapter by Nina Halperin, entitled ‘Economic Reform, Social Mobilization and Democratization in Post-Mao China’ (New York: Routledge)

Han, Minzhu & Sheng Hua (1990) Cries for Democracy: Writings and Speeches from the 1989 Chinese Democracy Movement (New Jersey: Princeton University Press)

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Yu, Mok-chiu, Frank Harrison & George Woodcock (1990) Voices from Tiananmen Square: Beijing Spring and the Democracy Movement (Montreal: Black Rose). Available to read on archive.org

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Nathan, Andrew (1989) ‘Chinese Democracy in 1989: Continuity and Change,’ Problems in Communism, Vol.38, No.5, pp.16-29

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Liang, Zhang, Andrew Nathan & Perry Link (2001) The Tiananmen Papers (New York: Public Affairs). Available to read on archive.org

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Oksenberg, Michel, Lawrence Sullivan, Marc Lambert & Qiao Li (1990) Beijing Spring, 1989: Confrontation and Conflict: The Basic Documents (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe) Available to read on archive.org

Saich, Tony (1990) The Chinese People’s Movement: Perspectives on Spring 1989 (Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe)

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Sheehan, Jackie (1998) Chinese Workers: A New History, Chapter 7 entitled ‘Let the Whole Nation Know the Workers Are Organised, 1984-94,’ (London: Routledge)

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Walder, Andrew (1991) ‘Workers, Managers and the State: The Reform Era and the Political Crisis of 1989,’ in The China Quarterly, Issue 127, pp.467-492

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Walder, Andrew & Gong Xiaoxia (1993) ‘Workers in the Tiananmen Protests: The Politics of the Beijing Workers’ Autonomous Federation, The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs, Vol.29, pp.1-29

Walder, Andrew (1995) Popular Protest in the 1989 Democracy Movement: The Pattern of Grassroots Organization (Chinese University of Hong Kong)

Wasserstrom, Jeffrey & Elizabeth Perry (1992) Popular Protest and Political Culture in Modern China: Learning from 1989 (Boulder: Westview Press)

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McAdam, Doug, Sidney Tarrow & Charles Tilly (2001) Dynamics of Contention (New York: Cambridge University Press) SEE SIDEBAR

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5. Civil Society and Social Management in the PRC

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Lecture 5

How the Chinese Communist Party dealt with its biggest legitimacy crisis in China’s recent history and how it consolidated authoritarian rule of the party-state.  Why, unlike Taiwan’s Democratic Progressive Party in 1986, Chinese political opposition activists failed to establish a China Democracy Party in 1998.  What this development means for the prospects of a constitutional democracy based on the rule of law in the PRC.  A look at dissidents, social movements and some of the grassroots organisations that deal with poverty alleviation, women’s rights, social development, environmental protection, HIV-AIDS prevention, and policy advocacy.  How to assess the development of Chinese civil society organisation by making use of sociological and political definitions of civil society.

Reading

Required Reading

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Wright, Teresa (2002) ‘The China Democracy Party and the Politics of Protest in the 1980s to 1990s,’ The China Quarterly, Vol.172, pp.906-926

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Feng, Chongyi (2013) ‘Preserving Stability and Rights Protection: Conflict or Coherence?’ Journal of Current Chinese Affairs, Vol.42, No.2, pp.21-50

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Teets, Jessica (2013) ‘Let Many Civil Societies Bloom: The Rise of Consultative Authoritarianism in China,’ The China Quarterly, Vol.213, pp.19-38

Recommended Reading

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Saich, Tony (2000) ‘Negotiating the State: The Development of Social Organizations in China,’ The China Quarterly, pp.124-121

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Lai, Hongyi (2010) ‘Uneven Opening of China’s Society, Economy and Politics: Pro-growth Authoritarian Governance and Protests in China,’ Journal of Contemporary China, Vol.19, No.67, pp.819-835

Further Reading

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Podcast: The Future of China’s Civil Society, Andreas Fulda, 7 March, 2017

Buruma, Ian (2003) Bad Elements: Chinese Rebels from Los Angeles to Beijing (London: Phoenix)

Rodan, Garry (1996) Political Oppositions in Industrializing Asia, Chapter 6 by Anita Chan, entitled ‘The Changing Ruling Elite and Political Opposition in China,’ (London: Routledge)

Rodan Garry (1996) Political Oppositions in Industrializing Asia, Chapter 7 by He Baogang, entitled ‘Chinese Political Opposition in Exile,’ (London: Routledge)

Economy, Elizabeth (2010) The River Runs Black: The Environmental Challenge to China’s Future (Cornell University Press):
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    Front Matter (Intro, Contents and map)

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    1. The Death of the Huai River

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    2. A Legacy of Exploitation

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    3.The Economic Explosion and its Environmental Cost

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    4. The Challenge of Greening China

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    5. The New Politics of the Environment

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    6. The Devil at the Doorstep

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    7. Lessons from Abroad

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    8. Averting the Crisis

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    Back Matter (Notes and Index)

Fulda, Andreas (2015) Civil Society Contributions to Policy Innovation in the PR China (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan)

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Human Rights Watch (2000) Nipped in the Bud: The Suppression of the Chinese Democracy Party, Vol.12, No.5

Perry, Elizabeth & Mark Selden (2010) Chinese Society: Change, Conflict and Resistance (London: Routledge):
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    Introduction – Reform, Conflict and Resistance in Contemporary China

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    1. Rights and Resistance: The Changing Contexts of the Dissident Movement

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    12. The Revolution of Resistance

Goldman, Merle & Roderick MacFarquhar (1999) The Paradox of China’s Post-Mao Reforms, see Chapter 14 by Elizabeth Perry entitled ‘Crime, Corruption and Contention,’ (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press)

Seymour, James & Richard Anderson (1998) New Ghosts, Old Ghosts: Prisons and Labour Reform Camps in China (Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe)

Yang, Tuan, Andreas Fulda & Huang Haoming (2015) Civil Society Contributions to Policy Innovation in the PR China, see chapter entitled ‘How Policy Entrepreneurs Convinced China’s Government to Start Procuring Public Services from CSOs,’ (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan)

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Wang, Ming & Qiushi Liu (2009) ‘Analyzing China’s NGO Development System,’ The China Non-Profit Review, Vol.1, No.1, pp.5-35

Gilley, Bruce & Larry Diamond (2008) Political Change in China: Comparisons with Taiwan, see Chapter by R.P. Weller entitled ‘Regime Responses: Responsive Authoritarianism,’ (Boulder: Lynne Rienner)

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Wu, Hongda & Ted Slingerland (1992) Laogai: The Chinese Gulag (Boulder: Westview Press). Available to read on archive.org

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6. The PRC Under Xi JinPing

Corruption, Social Management and China’s Future under Xi JinPing’s Administration

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Lecture 6

A focus on the anti-corruption campaign, the hallmark of Xi Jinping’s administration, and its link to the rise of the New Citizens Movement.  This provides opportunities to discuss corruption conceptually and debate whether corruption in China is a by-product of one-party rule, or whether societal and cultural factors also play a role.  Looking at large-scale contemporary cases of corruption helps to elucidate Xi’s particular approach to corruption and evaluate the pervasiveness of corruption in China.  The broader challenges that lie ahead for Xi Jinping and the extent to which China will democratise. 

Reading

Required Reading

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Tsang, Steve (2009) ‘Consultative Leninism: China’s New Political Framework,’ Journal of Contemporary China, Vol.18, No.62, pp.865-880

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Li, Cheng (2012) ‘The End of the CCP’s Resilient Authoritarianism?  A Tripartite Assessment of Shifting Power in China, The China Quarterly, Vol.211, pp.595-623

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Xu Zhiyong (2013) ‘New Citizens’ Movement,’ Chinese Law & Government, Vol.46, Nos.5-6, pp.148-154

Recommended Reading

Book Discussion – China’s Communist Party: Atrophy and Adaptation

 

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Anonymous (2013) ‘How Much Is a Hardline Party Directive Shaping China’s Current Political Climate?’, China File, Document 9

Further Reading

Shambaugh, David (2008) China’s Communist Party: Atrophy and Adaptation, (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press)

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Feng, Chongyi (2007) Nationalism and Democratisation in Contemporary China,’ Global Dialogue, Vol.9, Nos.1-2, pp.49-59

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Feng, Chongyi (2008) ‘Democrats Within the Chinese Communist Party Since 1989,’ Journal of Contemporary China, Vol.17, No.57, pp.673-688

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Guo, Xuezhi (2014) ‘Controlling Corruption in the Party: China’s Central Discipline Inspection Committee,’ The China Quarterly, Vol.219, pp.597-624

He, Baogang (1997) The Democratic Implications of Civil Society in China (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan)

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Leung, James (2015) ‘Xi’s Corruption Crackdown: How Bribery and Graft Threaten The Chinese Dream,’ Foreign Affairs, May/June

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Moore, Rebecca (2001) ‘China’s Fledgling Civil Society,’ World Policy Journal, Vol.18, No.1, pp.56-66

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Scott, Ian (2013) ‘Institutional Design and Corruption Prevention in Hong Kong,’ Journal of Contemporary China, Vol.22, No.79, pp.77-92

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Zhong, Yang (2005) ‘Democratic Values Among Chinese Peasantry: An Empirical Study,’ China: An International Journal, Vol.32, No.2, pp.189-211

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7. An Election-Driven Democratization in Taiwan, 1992-2010

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Lecture 7

How the various election cycles fuelled Taiwan’s democratisation process throughout the 1990s and after 2000.  A focus on the rise and fall of the Democratic Progressive Party and the island’s president Chen Shuibian (2000-2008), who was later charged with corruption and given a life sentence in 2009.  Whether Taiwan can be considered a consolidated democracy and how its modern form of governance relates to its international status as a de facto sovereign country which is still being denied de cure sovereignty by international society.

Reading

Required Reading

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Fulda, Andreas (2002) ‘The Politics of Factionalism in Taiwan’s Democratic Progressive Party, Internationales Asienforum, Vol.33, pp.323-350

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Pascual, Carlos & Richard C. Bush (2007) ‘The Four Faces of Taiwan Democracy,’ Brookings.edu

Recommended Reading

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Chao, Linda & Ramon H. Myers (2000) ‘How Elections Promoted Democracy in Taiwan under Martial Law,’ The China Quarterly, Vol.162, pp.387-409

Further Reading

Rubinstein, Murray A.  (2016) The Other Taiwan: 1945-52 (Taylor & Francis), especially Chapter 5
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    5. From Democratic Movement to Bourgeois Democracy: The Internal Politics of The Taiwan Democratic Progressive Party in 1991, by Linda Arrigo

  • Also from this book:
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    Introduction – The Taiwan Miracle, by Murray Rubinstein

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    2. Taiwanese Society in Transition: Reconciling Pluralism and Confucianism, by Yu-han Chu

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    3. Social Protests and Political Democratization in Taiwan, by Yu-han Chu

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    9. The Emergence of an Environmental Consciousness in Taiwan, by David Chen

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Dittmer, Lowell, Haruhiro Fukui & Peter Lee (2000)  Informal Politics in East Asia (Cambridge University Press): Chapter 2 – Informal Politics in Taiwan by Cheng, T.J. & T.C. Chou SEE SIDEBAR

Chang, Charles Chi-hsiang & Hung-Mao Tien (1996) Taiwan’s Electoral Politics and Democratic Transition, chapter entitled ‘Issue Structure: The DPP’s Factionalism and Party Realignment,’ (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe)

Chu, Yu-han, Larry Diamond and Kharis Templeman (2016) Taiwan’s Democracy Challenged: The Chen Shia-ban Years (Boulder: Lynne Rienner)

Cheng, Tun-jen & Stephan Haggard (1992) Political Change in Taiwan (Boulder: Lynne Rienner), especially chapter 6:
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    Front matter

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    1. Regime Transformation in Taiwan

  • Part I – Social Change, Liberalization and Democratization: Basic Processes
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    2. Transformation of an Authoritarian Party State

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    3. The Rise of Social Movements and Civil Protests

  • Part II – The Transformation of the KMT and the Party System
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    4. The Changing Role of the KMT in Taiwan’s Political System

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    5. Liberalization, Democratization and the Role of the KMT

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    6. Political Opposition in Taiwan: The Development of the Progressive Democratic Party

  • Part III – The Electoral System and Electoral Behaviour
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    7. The Electoral System and Voting Behaviour in Taiwan

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    8. Electoral Competition and Political Democratization

  • Part IV – Prospects
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    9. The Effect of Taiwan’s Political Reform on Taiwan-Mainland Relations

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    10. Taiwan Transition?

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    Index

Rigger, Shelley (2001) From Opposition to Power: Taiwan’s Democratic Progressive Party, (Boulder: Lynne Rienner)

Tsang, Steve & Hung-mao Tien (1999) Democratization in Taiwan: Implications for China, chapter by Hung-mao Tien & Tun-Ten Cheng entitled ‘Crafting Democratic Institutions,’ (Basingstoke: Macmillan)

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Tien, Hung-mao & Yun-han Chen (1996) ‘Building Democracy in Taiwan,’ The China Quarterly, Vol.148, pp.1141-1170

Paolino, Philip & James Meernik (2008) Democratization in Taiwan: Challenges in Transformation (Aldershot: Ashgate)

Fell, Dafydd (2011) Government and Politics in Taiwan (Abingdon: Routledge)

Jacobs, Bruce (2012) Democratizing Taiwan (publisher: Brill):
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    Introduction

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    1. How Taiwan became Democratic

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    2. The Japanese and Kuomintang Colonial Regimes

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    3. The Lee Teng-hui Presidency to 1996

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    4. The 1996 Presidential Election and the Taiwan Straits Crisis

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    5. Lee Teng-hui as an Elected President

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    6. The Presidency of Chen Shui-bian

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    Conclusion

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8. Development of Civil Society in Taiwan, 2008-2016

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Lecture 8

The trajectory of civil society development in Taiwan.  How the Kuomintang’s (KMT’s) metamorphosis into a competitive authoritarian regime (2008-2016) led to a rise of radical civic activism in Taiwan and how socio-economic and politico-cultural factors have led to the consolidation of a Taiwan-centric national identity among young Taiwanese.  

Reading

Required Reading

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Hsiao, Hsin-huang (1990) ‘Emerging Social Movements and the Rise of a Demanding Civil Society in Taiwan,’ The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs, Vol.24, pp.163-180

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Rowen, Ian (2015) ‘Inside Taiwan’s Sunflower Movement: Twenty-four Days in a Student-occupied Parliament and the Future of the Region’, The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol.74, No.1, pp.

Further Reading

Gilley, Bruce & Larry Diamond (2008) Political Change in China: Comparisons with Taiwan, see chapter by Y. H. Chu entitled ‘Civil Society and the State: The Evolution of Political Values,’ (Lynne Rienner)

Tsang, Steve & Hung-mao Tien (1999) Democratization in Taiwan: Implications for China, chapter by Chyuan-Jeng Shiau entitled ‘Civil Society and Democratization,’ (Basingstoke: Macmillan)

Sautede, E. (2001) Civil Society in Taiwan: Caught Between a Strictly Political Democratisation and a Nation-Building Process

Gold, Thomas B. (1986) State and Society in the Taiwan Miracle (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe)

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Ho, Ming-sho (2020) ‘Understanding the Trajectory of Social Movements in Taiwan, 1980-2010,’ Journal of Current Chinese Affairs, Vol.39, No.3, pp.3-22

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9. Origins of Hong Kong’s Semi-Democratic Status

Lecture 9 (not yet available)

The origins of Hong Kong’s self-government: the Sino-British Joint Declaration, Hong Kong’s Basic Law and the problematic nature of Hong Kong’s functional constituencies.  Critique of the legacy of British imperialism in China and the historical importance of Hong Kong’s return under PRC sovereignty in 1997.  Review of the state of implementation of ‘One Country: Two Systems’ in Hong Kong.

Reading

Required Reading

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Kuan, Hsin-chi (1998) ‘Escape from Politics: Hong Kong’s Predicament of Political Development?’ International Journal of Public Administration, Vol.21, No.10, pp.1423-1448

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Chan, Ming K. (1997) ‘The Legacy of the British Administration of Hong Kong: A View from Hong Kong,’ The China Quarterly, Vol.151, pp.567-582

Further Reading

Lee, Piu-tak (2006) Colonial Hong Kong and Modern China: Interaction and Reintegration (Hong Kong University Press):
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    Front Matter

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    Introduction – History of Hong Kong and History of Modern China: Unravelling the Relationship

  • Part I – The History of Hong Kong
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    1. The Common People in Hong Kong History

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    2. Religion in Hong Kong History

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    3. The Sunday Rest Issue in Nineteenth Century Hong Kong

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    4. Governorships of Lugard and May

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    5. The Making of a Market Town in Rural Hong Kong

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    6. Recording a Rich Heritage: Research in Hong Kong’s “New Territories”

  • Part II – Hong Kong and Its Relations with Modern China
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    7. The Contribution made by Frederick Steward (1836-1889 to the Modernization of China

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    8. The Use of Sinology in the Nineteenth Century

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    9. The Guangxi Clique and Hong Kong: Sanctuary in a Dangerous World

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    10. Business and Radicalism: Hong Kong Chinese Merchants and the Chinese Communist Movement, 1921-1934

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    11. Made in China or Made in Hong Kong?  National Goods and the Hong Kong Business Community

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    12. Hong Kong’s Economic Relations with China, 1949-1955

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    Notes

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    Bibliography

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    Index

In-depth Interview with Li Ka Shing, Hong Kong billionaire entrepreneur

 

Lim, Tai-wei & Xiaojuan Ping (2016) Tycoons in Hong Kong: Between Occupy Central and Beijing (Imperial College Press)

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Tsang, Steve (1995) Government and Politics (Hong Kong University Press) SEE SIDEBAR

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Loh, Christine (2006) Functional Constituencies (Hong Kong University Press) SEE SIDEBAR

Tsang, Steve (2007) A Modern History of Hong Kong  (I. B. Tauris)

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Kemenade, Willem van (1999) China, Hong Kong, Taiwan Inc. : The Dynamic of a New Empire (Abacus: London)

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10. Occupy Central with Love and Peace

The Beginning of the End of Hong Kong’s Democratic Experiment?

Lecture 10 (not yet available)

Review of the social movement Occupy Central with Love and Peace (OCLP), which later morphed into the Umbrella Movement (UM).  What did OCLP-UM achieve?  In which sense has it failed?  Does it signify the beginning of the end of Hong Kong’s democratic experiment?  Whether OCLP-UM can be considered an ecumenical Christian-led social movement aimed at protecting religious freedom in Hong Kong.

Reading

Required Reading

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Anonymous (2014) ‘Losing Hearts and Minds: Hong Kong and Taiwan,’ The Economist, Vol.413, No.8916, 6th December, pp.46-47

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Lam, Willy (2015) ‘Showdown Looms for Beijing and Hong Kong’

Recommended Reading

Tarrow, Sidney & Charles Tilly (2015) Contentious Politics  (Oxford University Press):
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    Contents

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    Part I – Introduction

  • Chapter 1 – Making Claims
  • Chapter 2 – How to Analyse Contention
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    Part II – Repertoires, Regimes and Opportunities

  • Chapter 3 – Democracy, Undemocracy and Change in Repertoires
  • Chapter 4 – Change in Hybrid Regimes
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    Part III – Interaction and Mobilization

  • Chapter 5 – Contentious Interaction
  • Chapter 6 – Mobilization and Demobilization
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    Part IV – Movement and Lethal Politics

  • Chapter 7 – Social Movements
  • Chapter 8 – Lethal Conflicts
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    Index

Further Reading

Kuah-Pearce, Khun Eng & Gilles Guiheux (2011) Social Movements in China and Hong Kong: The Expansion of Protest Space (Amsterdam University Press):
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    Front matter (Title and Contents)

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    1. Framing Social Movements in Contemporary China and Hong Kong

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    2. Social Protests, Village Democracy and State-Building in China

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    3. Social Movements and State-Society Relationship in HK (Recommended)

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    4. Social Movements and the Law in Post-Colonial Hong Kong

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    5. Defining Hong Kong as an Emerging Protest Space – Anti-Globalisation

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    6. ‘Old Working Class’ Resistance in Capitalist China

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    7. Justifying the New Economic and Social Order

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    8. The Rise of Migrant Workers’ Collective Actions

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    9. Grassroots Activism and Labour Electoral Politics Under Chinese Rule

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    10. Hong Kong’s Trades Unions as an Evolving Organisation

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    11. Non-governmental Feminist Activism in the PRC

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    12. The Hong Kong Catholic Church

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    13. Religiosity and Social Movements in China

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    Back matter (Bibliography and Index)

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Ma, Ngok (2007) Political Development in Hong Kong: State, Political Society and Civil Society (Hong Kong University Press)

Tan, Jonathan & Justin Tse (2016) Theological Reflections on the Hong Kong Umbrella Movement (Asian Christianity in the Diaspora) (Palgrave Macmillan)

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Online Resources

Journals

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The China Quarterly on Cambridge Core (1960 to present)

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The China Quarterly on JSTOR (to 2012 only)

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The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs (now known as The China Journal) on JSTOR (from 1979)

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Journal of Contemporary China on Taylor & Francis Online (1992 to present)

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Modern China on Sage (1975 to present)

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Modern China on JSTOR (1975 to 2014)

Websites

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China Environment Forum at the Wilson Center, Washington D.C.

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US Congressional-Executive Commission on China

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China Leadership Monitor at the Hoover Institution (Stanford)

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China Program at the Carter Center

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China Institute

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Questions

Portfolio Report (2,000 words)

Answer all

  1. The political culture in any given country is not static but can change over time.  Discuss in reference to the scholarship on political culture of at least two of the following scholars:  Gabriel Almond, Lucian Pye, Lowell Dittmer, Shiping Hua and Andrew Nathan.
  2. Democracy is not the result of economic modernisation.  Discuss in reference to the theories of modernisation and the case of the PRC.
  3. Students of democracy have held that if there is not a commonly accepted view of the identity of the state in which a given population lives, it is not possible to transform that state into a democratic one.  Taiwan’s development from 1987-1992 challenges that assumption.”  (Wachman 1994, p.32).  Discuss Wachman’s statement.
  4. Can CCP’s governance be described best as “resilient authoritarianism”?  Discuss in reference to at least two of the following three scholars: Steve Tsang, Cheng Li and David Shambaugh.

Essay (2,500 words)

Select one

  1. Does the PR China require a 5th modernization, as understood by Wei Jingsheng? Explain your answer and discuss this question in relation to more recent calls for democratic change in mainland China such as the Charter 08.
  2. Both the Chinese government’s and protesters’ inability to engage in a meaningful political dialogue led to the tragedy of Tiananmen in 1989. Discuss.
  3. The dangwai/DPP were key drivers of Taiwan’s election-driven democratisation in the 1980s and early 1990s. Discuss.
  4. What are the prospects of a dangwai (outside the party) movement in the PRC? Discuss this question in relation to the China Democracy Party (1998) and the New Citizens’ Movement (2010-).
  5. Is Taiwan a consolidated liberal democracy? Explain your answer and discuss this question in relation to Taiwan’s Sunflower Movement (2014).
  6. Occupy Central with Love and Peace / the Umbrella Movement in 2014 was Christian-led. Discuss.

Reflection Report (500 words)

Answer both

    1. Please state and explain at least three occurrences where the essential or recommended readings challenged your prior assumptions about political development in the Greater China region from 1978 until the present.
    2. Please reflect on your participation in the lecture-seminars and how you interacted a) with your fellow students, and b) where you felt that the lecturers managed (or failed) to move you out of your comfort zone and you learned something new.

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