Liberalism and Neoliberalism

University of Cambridge (2011)

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Course Outline

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Handwritten Lecture Notes


1. Liberalism

Classical liberalism rests on a variety of sources, Kant, Cobden and Mill being particularly important. Unlike most branches of realism, international behaviour is linked to regime-type, and republics/liberal democracies are taken to be less warlike than monarchies/authoritarian regimes, although modern ‘democratic peace’ theory suggests that liberal regimes are only peaceful in their dealings with each other. In the 20th century liberalism has been associated with the promotion of international institutions; the modern version of liberalism (‘neoliberal institutionalism’ or ‘neoliberalism’ for short) is related to neorealism, but based on a more optimistic reading of the anarchy problematic.

Reading

Required Reading

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Ashworth, Lucian M. (2006) Where are the Idealists in Interwar International Relations? Review of International Studies, Vol.32, pp.291-308

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Burchill, Scott (2005) Liberal Internationalism, Chapter 2 of Theories of International Relations, by Scott Burchill and Andrew Linklater, pp.28-66

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Doyle, Michael W. (1986) Liberalism and World Politics, The American Political Science Review, Vol.80, No.4 (Dec 1986), pp.1151-1169

Recommended Reading

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Axelrod & Hamilton (1981) The Evolution of Cooperation, Science, Vol.211, No.4489 (Mar 27, 1981), pp.1390-1396

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Brown, Nardin & Rengger (2002) Ancient Thought: Thucydides, Machiavelli, Thomas Hobbes, Chapter 2 of International Relations in Political Thought: texts from the Ancient Greeks,  Cambridge University Press, pp.34-60, pp.257-269, pp.335-340

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Brown, Nardin & Rengger (2002) The Enlightenment: Immanuel Kant, Chapter 7 of International Relations in Political Thought: texts from the Ancient Greeks, (Cambridge: CUP), pp.428-455

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Doyle, Michael W. (1983) Kant, Liberal Legacies and Foreign Affairs, Philosophy & Public Affairs, Vol.12, No.3 (Summer 1983), pp.205-235

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Hill, Christopher (1989) 1939: The Origins of Liberal Realism, Review of International Studies, Vol.15, No.4 (Oct 1989), pp.319-328

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Jackson & Sorenson (2003) Liberalism, Chapter 2 of Introduction to International Relations: theories and approaches (Oxford: OUP), pp.96-125

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Jahn, Beate (2005) Kant, Mill and Illiberal Legacies in International Affairs, International Organization, Vol.59, No.1 (Winter 2005), pp.177-207

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Layne, Christopher (1994) Kant or Cant: the Myth of the Democratic Peace, International Security, Vol.19, No.2 (Autumn 1994), pp.5-49

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Long, David (1991) J.A. Hobson and Idealism in International Relations, Review of International Studies, Vol.17, No.3 (Jul 1991), pp.285-304

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Markwell, D. J. (1986) Sir Alfred Zimmern Revisited: Fifty Years On, Review of International Studies, Vol.12, No.4 (Oct 1986), pp.279-292

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Navari, Cornelia (1989) The Great Illusion Revisited: The international theory of Normal Angell, Review of International Studies, Vol.15, No.4 (Oct 1989), pp.341-358

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Richardson, James L. (1997) Contending Liberalisms: Past and Present, Journal of International Relations, Vol.3, No.1, pp.5-33

Further Reading

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McIlwain, C.H. (1937) The Reconstruction of Liberalism, Foreign Affairs, October 1937

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Moravcsik, Andrew (1997) Taking Preferences Seriously: A Liberal Theory of International Politics, International Organization, Vol.51, No.4 (Autumn 1997), pp.513-553

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Cobden, Richard (2002) ‘The Political Writings of Richard Cobden’, in  International Relations in Political Thought: Texts from the Ancient Greeks to the First World War, by Chris Brown, Terry Nardin and Nicholas Rengger (eds.) (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp.538-549


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2. Neoliberalism

Reading

Required Reading

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Axelrod & Keohane (1985) Achieving Cooperation Under Anarchy: Strategies and institutions, World Politics, Vol.38, No.1 (Oct 1985), pp.226-254

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Jervis, Robert (1999) Realism, Neoliberalism and Cooperation: Understanding the debate, International Security, Vol.24, No.1 (Summer 1999), pp.42-63

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Moravcsik, Andrew (1997) Taking Preferences Seriously, International Organization, Vol.51, No.4, (Autumn 1997), pp.513-553

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Powell, Robert (1991) Absolute and Relative Gains in International Relations Theory, The American Political Science Review, Vol.85, No.4 (Dec 1991), pp.1303-1320

Recommended Reading

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Deudney & Ikenberry (1999) The Nature and Sources of Liberal International Order, Review of International Studies, Vol.25, No.2 (Apr 1999), pp.179-196

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Grieco, Joseph M. (1988) Anarchy and the Limits of Cooperation: A realist critique of the newest liberal institutionalism, International Organization, Vol.42, No.3 (Summer 1988), pp.485-507

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Grieco, Powell & Snidal (1993) The Relative Gains Problem for International Cooperation, The American Political Science Review, Vol.87, No.3 (Sep 1993), pp.727-743

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Hasenclever, Mayer & Rittberger (2000) Integrating Theories of International Regimes, Review of International Studies, Vol.26, No.1 (Jan 2000), pp.3-33

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Ikenberry, G. John (2003) Review Article: The Breaking of Nations: Order and Chaos in the Twenty-First Century by Robert Cooper, Foreign Affairs, Vol.82, No.6 (Nov-Dec 2003), p.152

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Keohane, Robert (2002) From Interdependence and Institutions to Globalisation and Governance, Chapter 1 of  Power and Governance in a Partially Globalized World (Routledge)

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Keohane, Robert (1986) Reflections on Theory of International Politics: A response to my critics, Chapter 11 of Neorealism and Its Critics (New York: Columbia), pp.322-345

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Keohane & Martin (1995) The Promise of Institutionalist Theory, International Security, Vol.20, No.1 (Summer 1995), pp.39-51

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Legro & Moravcsik (1999) Is Anybody Still a Realist?  International Security, Vol.24, No.2 (Autumn 1999), pp.5-55

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Lipson, Charles (1984) International Cooperation in Economic and Security Affairs, World Politics, Vol.37, No.1 (Oct 1984), pp.1-23

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Mearsheimer, John J. (1994) The False Promise of International Institutions, International Security, Vol.19, No.3 (Winter 1994-95), pp.5-49

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Milner, Helen (1988) Trading Places: Industries for Free Trade, World Politics, Vol.40, No.3 (Apr 1988), pp.350-376


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3. Neoconservatism – Liberalism 3.0

The events of the last two decades, and especially of the two terms of George W. Bush’s presidency, have raised questions for the liberal conception of international relations. The charge often made is that the ‘neo-conservative’ vision of the world is, in effect, a modern version of Wilsonian liberal internationalism (‘hard Wilsonianism’ to use a phrase of Max Boot’s.) One response to this is G. John Ikenberry’s notion of ‘Liberalism 3.0’; another is Daniel Deudney’s notion of ‘republican security theory’.

Reading

Required Reading

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Ikenberry, G. John (2009) Liberal Internationalism 3.0: America and the dilemmas of liberal world order, Perspectives on Politics, Vol.7, No.1 (Mar 2009), pp.71-87

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Ikenberry, G. John (2011) The Future of the Liberal World Order: internationalism after America, Foreign Affairs, Vol.90, No.3 (May/Jun 2011), pp.56-62, 63-68


4. Democratic Peace Theory

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See Democratic Peace Theory on War Studies page


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