Realism and Neorealism

University of Cambridge (2011)

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Course Outline

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Handwritten Lecture Notes


1. Classical Realism

Reading

Required Reading

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Holzgrefe (1989) The Origins of Modern International Relations Theory, Review of International Studies, Vol.15, No.1 (Jan 1989), pp.11-26

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Jackson & Sorenson (2003) ‘Realism,’ Chapter 1 of Introduction to International Relations (Oxford: OUP)

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Morgenthau, Hans (1948) ‘Principles of Realism,’ Chapter 1 of Politics Among Nations: The struggle for power and peace (New York: Alfred A. Knopf)

Recommended Reading

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Brown, Nardin & Rengger, Nardin & Rengger (eds.) (2002) Chapters on Thucydides, Machiavelli and Hobbes from International Relations in Political Thought: Texts from the Ancient Greeks to the First World War, pp.34-60, 257-269, 335-340

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Bull, Hedley (1969) The Twenty Years Crisis Thirty Years On, International Journal, Vol.24, No.4 (Autumn 1969), pp.625-638

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Gilpin, Robert (1981) ‘The Nature of Political Change,’ Chapter 1 in War and Change in World Politics, (Cambridge:CUP)
SEE SIDEBAR

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Guzzini, Stefano (2004) The Enduring Dilemmas of Realism in International Relations, European Journal of International Relations, Vol.10, No.4 (Dec 2004) pp.533-568

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Hollis & Smith (1991) ‘The Games Nations Play,’ Chapter 6 in Explaining and Understanding International Relations (Clarendon Press)

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Lebow, Richard Ned (2010) ‘Classical Realism,’ Chapter 3 in International Relations Theories: Discipline and Diversity, by Dunne, Kurki & Smith (editors) (Oxford:OUP)

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Mearsheimer, John J. (2005) E H Carr vs Idealism: The battle rages on, International Relations 19, pp.139-152

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Morgenthau, Hans J. (1948) ‘Six Principles of Political Realism’, in Robert J. Art and Robert Jervis (eds.), International Politics: Enduring Concepts and Contested Issues, 10th ed. (New York: Longman) pp.7-14

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Rosenberg, Justin (1990) What’s the Matter with Realism? Review of International Studies, Vol.16, No.4, pp.285-303

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Rosenthal, Joel H. (2002) ‘Political Realism and Its Practitioners,’ Chapter 1 of Righteous Realists: Political Realism, Responsible Power and American Culture in the Nuclear Age (LSU Press)

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Schmidt, Brian (1990) Lessons From the Past: Reassessing the interwar disciplinary history of International Relations, International Studies Quarterly, Vol.42, No.3 (Sep 1998), pp.433-459

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Smith, Michael Joseph (1990) ‘The Idealist Provocateurs,’ Chapter 3 in Realist Thought From Weber To Kissinger (Louisiana State University Press)

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Smith, Michael Joseph (1990), ‘Theory, Policy and Ethics: The Realist Contribution Assessed,’ Chapter 9 in Realist Thought From Weber To Kissinger (Louisiana State University Press)

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Thucydides, ‘The Melian Dialogue,’ excerpt from History of the Peloponnesian War

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Waever, Ole (1996), ‘The Rise and Fall of the Inter-paradigm Debate,’ Chapter 7 in International Theory: Positivism and Beyond, by Smith, Booth & Zalewski (editors) (Cambridge: CUP)
SEE SIDEBAR

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Williams, Michael C. (2005) ‘Hans Morgenthau and the Historical Construction of Realism,’ Chapter 3 of The Realist Tradition and the Limits of International Relations (Cambridge:CUP)
SEE SIDEBAR

Further Reading

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Banks, Michael (1985) ‘The Inter-Paradigm Debate,’ Chapter 1 in International Relations: A handbook of current theory, by Margot Light and A J R Groom

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Dunne & Schmidt() ‘Realism’, Chapter 5 in Globalization of World Politics, by Bayliss

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Jervis, Robert (1999) Realism, Neoliberalism and Cooperation: Understanding the debate, International Security, Vol.24, No.1 (Summer 1999), pp.42-63

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McCarthy, Niall (2009) A Critical Analysis of the ‘Great Debates’ That Structured Traditional International Relations Theory

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Schmidt, Brian C. (2004) ‘Realism as Tragedy’, Review of International Studies, Vol.30, No.3 (2004), pp.427-441

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Williams, Michael C. (2004) Why Ideas Matter in International Relations: Hans Morgenthau, Classical Realism and the Moral Construction of Power Politics, International Organization, Vol.58, No.4 (Autumn 2004), pp.633-665

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2. Neorealism or Structural Realism

Neorealism was first outlined by Kenneth Waltz in his 1979 book, Theory in International Politics.  Neorealists include John Mearsheimer, Robert Art, Charles Glaser, Joseph Grieco, Robert Jervis, Christopher Layne, Stephen Walt, Stephen Van Evera, Barry Posen and Marc Trachtenberg.

Structural realism divides into ‘defensive realism’ (Waltz, Van Evera, Glaser), ‘offensive realism’ (Mearsheimer, Walt) and ‘neo-classical realism’.

Reading

Required Reading

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Buzan, Barry, (1993) ‘Overview: Realism and Neorealism,’ Chapter 1 in The Logic of Anarchy by Barry Buzan, Charles Jones and Richard Little (New York: Columbia University Press)

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Rose, Gideon (1998) Neoclassical Realism and Theories of Foreign Policy (Review Article),  World Politics, Vol.51, No.1 (Oct 1998), pp.144-172

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Waltz, Kenneth N. (1979) ‘Political Structures,’ Chapter 5 in Theory of International Politics  (Addison-Wesley Publishing)

Recommended Reading

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Ashley, Richard K. (1986) ‘The Poverty of Neorealism,’ Chapter 9 in Neorealism and Its Critics by Robert O. Keohane (ed.) (New York: Columbia University Press)

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Buzan, Barry (1996) ‘The Timeless Wisdom of Realism?’, Chapter 2 in International Theory: Positivism and beyond, by Steve Smith, Ken Booth and Marysia Zalewski (Cambridge: CUP)
SEE SIDEBAR

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Jervis, Robert (1998) Realism in the Study of World Politics, International Organization, Vol.52, No.4 (Autumn 1998), pp.971-991

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Waltz, Kenneth N. (1986) ‘Reflections on Theory of International Politics: A response to my critics,’ Chapter 11 in Neorealism and Its Critics, Robert O. Keohane (ed.) (New York: Columbia University Press)

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Lebow, Richard Ned (1994) The Long Peace, the End of the Cold War and the Failure of Realism, International Organization, Vol.48, No.2 (Spring 1994), pp.249-277

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Mearsheimer, John J. (2001) ‘Wealth and Power,’ Chapter 3 in The Tragedy of Great Power Politics, (New York: W.W. Norton & Co.)

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Schweller, Randall L. (2004) Unanswered Threats: A neoclassical realist theory of underbalancing, International Security, Vol.29, No.2 (Autumn 2004), pp.159-201

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Zakaria, Fareed (1992) Realism and Domestic Politics: a review essay (Myths of Empire: Domestic Politics and International Ambition by Jack Snyder), International Security, Vol.17, No.1 (Summer 1992), pp.177-198

Further Reading

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Paioletti, Flavio (2011) Waever’s Assessment of Neo-Neo Synthesis and its Validity in the Neo-Neo Debate

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Pickworth, Elizabeth (2011) The Theory of Structure: An analysis

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Buzan, Barry (1998) ‘Competing Conceptions of the International System,’ Chapter 2 in International Systems in World History: Remaking the study of International Relations, by Barry Buzan and Richard Little (Oxford: OUP)

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Buzan, Barry (1993) ‘Waltz, His Critics and the Prospects for a Structural Realism,’ Chapter 2 in The Logic of Anarchy by Barry Buzan, Charles Jones and Richard Little (New York: Columbia University Press)

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Buzan, Barry (1993) ‘System, Structure and Units,’ Chapter 3 in The Logic of Anarchy by Barry Buzan, Charles Jones and Richard Little (New York: Columbia University Press)

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Buzan, Barry (1993) ‘Beyond Neorealism: Interaction capacity,’ Chapter 4 in The Logic of Anarchy by Barry Buzan, Charles Jones and Richard Little (New York: Columbia University Press)

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Goddard & Nexon (2005) Paradigm Lost?  Reassessing Theory of International PoliticsEuropean Journal of International Relations, Vol.11, No.1, pp.9-61

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Hirschman, Alberto O. (1970) The Search for Paradigms as a Hindrance to Understanding, World Politics, Vol.22, No.3 (Apr 1970), pp.329-343

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Hoffmann, Stanley (1977) An American Social Science: International Relations, Daedalus, Vol.106, No.3 (summer 1977), pp.41-60

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Keohane, Robert O. (1986) ‘Realism, Neorealism and the Study of World Politics,’ Chapter 1 in Neorealism and Its Critics (New York: Columbia University Press)

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Keohane, Robert O. (1986) ‘Theory of World Politics: Structural realism and beyond,’ Chapter 7 in Neorealism and Its Critics (New York: Columbia University Press)

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Gilpin, Robert G. (1986) ‘The Richness of the Tradition of Political Realism,’ Chapter 10 in Neorealism and Its Critics (New York: Columbia University Press)

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Keohane & Waltz (2000) The Neorealist and His Critic, International Security, Vol.25, No.3 (Winter 2000-01), pp.204-205

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Ninkovich, Frank (2000) Where Have All the Realists Gone? Feature Review (The Ambiguous Legacy: US foreign relations in the “American Century”) (New York: Cambridge University Press)

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Ruggie, John G. (1983) Review: Continuity and Transformation in the World Polity: Toward a Neorealist Synthesis, World Politics, Vol.35, No.2 (Jan 1983), pp.261-285

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Schroeder, Paul (1994) Historical Reality vs Neo-Realist Theory, International Security, Vol.19, No.1 (Summer 1994), pp.108-148

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Suganami, Hidemi (2009) Understanding Man, the State and WarInternational Relations, Vol.23, No.3, pp372-388

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Waever, Ole (2009) Walt’z Theory of Theory

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Waltz, Kenneth N. () Neorealism: Confusions and Criticisms, Journal of Politics & Society

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Waltz, Kenneth N. (1990) Realist Thought and Neorealist Theory,  Journal of International Affairs, Vol.44, No.1, pp.21-37

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Waltz, Kenneth N. (1993) The Emerging Structure of International Politics, International Security, Vol.18, No.2 (Fall 1993), pp.44-79

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Waltz, Kenneth N. (2000) Structural Realism After the Cold War, International Security, Vol.25, No.1 (Summer 2000), pp.5-41

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(a) Defensive Realism

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Taliaferro, Jeffrey (2000) Security Seeking under Anarchy: Defensive Realism revisited, International Security, Vol.25, No.3 (Winter 2000-2001), pp.128-161

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Van Evera, Stephen (1998) Offense, Defense and the Causes of War, International Security, Vol.22, No.4 (Spring 1998), pp.5-43


(b) Offensive Realism

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Mearsheimer, John J. (1994) The False Promise of International Institutions, International Security, Vol.19, No.3 (Winter 1994-95), pp.5-49

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Mearsheimer, John J. (2013) Anarchy and the Struggle for Power,  Chapter of, Essential Readings in World Politics, 5th ed., by Karen A. Mingst and Jack L. Snyder (eds.) (New York: W. W. Norton)

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Mearsheimer, John J. (2006) China’s Unpeaceful Rise, Current History, Vol.105, No.690 (Apr 2006), pp.160-162

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Snyder, Glenn H. (2002) Mearsheimer’s World-Offensive Realism and the Struggle for Security: a review essay, International Security, Vol.27, No.1 (Summer 2002), pp.149-173

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Tang, Shiping (2008) Fear in International Politics: two positions, International Studies Review, Vol.10, No.3 (Sep 2008), pp.451-471

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Tang, Shiping (2010) Social Evolution of International Politics: from Mearsheimer to Jervis, European Journal of International Relations, Vol.16, No.1, pp.31-55

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Toft, Peter (2005) John Mearsheimer: an offensive realist between geopolitics and power, Journal of International Relations and Development, 8, pp.381-408


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(c) Neoclassical Realism

Neoclassical realism was formulated by Gideon Rose in his 1998 World Politics review article, combing classical realism and neorealism – particularly defensive realism.  Other neoclassical realists include William Wohlforth, Gideon Rose (current editor of Foreign Affairs), Fareed Zakaria (journalist and CNN broadcaster) and Robert Jervis.

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Rathbun, Brian (2008) A Rose by Any Other Name: Neoclassical realism as the logical and necessary extension of structural realism, Security Studies, Vol.17, pp.294-321

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Rose, Gideon (1998) Neoclassical Realism and Theories of Foreign Policy (Review Article),  World Politics, Vol.51, No.1 (Oct 1998), pp.144-172


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3. Comparing Classical and Structural Realism

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Brown, Chris (2009) Structural realism, classical realism and human nature, International Relations, Vol.23, No.2, pp. 257-270

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Buzan, Barry, (1993) ‘Overview: Realism and Neorealism,’ Chapter 1 in The Logic of Anarchy by Barry Buzan, Charles Jones and Richard Little (New York: Columbia University Press)

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Forde, Steven (1995) International Realism and the Science of Politics: Thucydides, Machiavelli and Neorealism, International Studies Quarterly, Vol.39, No.2 (Jun 1995), pp.141-160

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Jervis, Robert (1999) Realism, Neoliberalism and Cooperation: Understanding the debate, International Security, Vol.24, No.1 (Summer 1999), pp.42-63

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Keohane, Robert O. (1986) ‘Realism, Neorealism and the Study of World Politics,’ Chapter 1 in Neorealism and Its Critics (New York: Columbia University Press)

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Rosenau, James N. (1988) Patterned Chaos in Global Life: structure and process in the two worlds of world politics, International Political Science Review, Vol.9, No.4 (Oct 1988), pp.327-364

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Shimko, K. (1992) ‘Realism, Neorealism, and American Liberalism,’ The Review of Politics, Vol.54, No.2, pp. 281-301

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Waltz, Kenneth N. (1990) Realist Thought and Neorealist Theory,  Journal of International Affairs, Vol.44, No.1, pp.21-37


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