University of Nottingham (2019)

International Politics of the 20th Century

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Module Outline

General Reading

Books

Haslam, Jonathan (2011) Russia’s Cold War: from the October Revolution to the Fall of the Wall (Yale UP)
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    1. Underlying Antagonisms

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    2. Ideology Triumphant

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    6. Sudden Frost

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    7. Taking the World to the Brink

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    8. Détente

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    10. Détente Falls

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Crockatt, Richard (1996) The Fifty Years War: The United States and the Soviet Union in world politics (Routledge)
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    4. Two Ways of Life: The Cold War in Europe, 1945-1953

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    6. Peaceful Coexistence and Irreconcilable Conflict, 1953-1964

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    7. The Nuclear Arms Race 1945-1963

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Leffler, Melvyn P. (2007) For the Soul of Mankind: the United States, the Soviet Union and the Cold War (Farrar, Straus & Giroux)SEE SIDEBAR

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Leffler, Melvyn P. & Odd Arne Westad (eds)(2010) The Cambridge History of the Cold War, Volume 1, Origins (Cambridge UP)SEE SIDEBAR

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Leffler, Melvyn P. & Odd Arne Westad (eds) (2010) The Cambridge History of the Cold War, Volume 2, Crises and Détente (Cambridge UP)SEE SIDEBAR

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Leffler, Melvyn P. & Odd Arne Westad (eds) (2010) The Cambridge History of the Cold War, Volume 3, Endings (Cambridge UP) SEE SIDEBAR

Saull, Richard (2007) The Cold War and After: capitalism, revolution and superpower politics (Pluto Press)
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    1. Introduction: History and Theory in the Cold War

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    7. Conclusions: Tracing the Paradoxical Ends of the Cold War

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Westad, Odd Arne Westad (2005) The Global Cold War (Cambridge UP) SEE SIDEBAR

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Zubok, Vladislav (2009) A Failed Empire: the Soviet Union in the Cold War from Stalin to Gorbachev (University of North Carolina Press) SEE SIDEBAR

Other general books
  • Campbell, Craig & Fredrik Logevall (2009) America’s Cold War: the politics of insecurity (Harvard UP)

  • Hobsbawm, E.J. (1995) Age of Extremes: the twentieth century, 1914-1991 (Abacus)

  • Hurst, Steven (2005) Cold War US Foreign Policy: Key perspectives (Edinburgh UP)

  • Isaacs, Jeremy & Taylor Downing (1998)Cold War: for 45 years the world held its breath (Bantam Press)

  • Gaddis, John Lewis (2007) The Cold War (Penguin) (copy in the study)

  • Kennedy-Pipe, Caroline (1998) Russia and the World, 1917-1991 (Bloomsbury Academic)

  • Leebaert, Derek (2003) The Fifty-year Wound: how America’s Cold War victory shapes our world (Back Bay Books)

  • Lundestad, Geir (2017)International relations since 1945: East, West, North, South (Sage)

  • Paterson, Thomas (1994) On Every Front: the making and unmaking of the Cold War (W.W. Norton & Co.)

  • Powaski, Ronald (1997) The Cold War: the United States and the Soviet Union (Oxford: OUP)

  • Roberts, J. M. (2000) The Penguin History of the Twentieth Century: the history of the world, 1901 to the present (Penguin)

  • Walker, Martin (1994) The Cold War and the Making of the Modern World (Vintage)

  • Young, John W. & John Kent (2013) International Relations Since 1945 (Oxford: OUP)

Collections of Primary Resources

Day, Richard (1995) Cold War Capitalism: the view from Moscow, 1945-1975 (Routledge)

Hanhimäki, Jussi & Odd Arne Westad (2004) The Cold War: A history in documents and eyewitness accounts (Oxford: OUP)

Mastny, Vojtech & Malcolm Byrne (2006) A Cardboard Castle? An inside history of the Warsaw Pact, 1955-1991 (Central European UP)
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    Chronology of Events

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    Part 1: The Formative Years

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    Part 2: The Crisis

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    Main Actors

Journals

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Cold War History (via Moodle)

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Journal of Cold War Studies

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International Security (via JSTOR)

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Foreign Affairs (via JSTOR)

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Diplomatic History (via JSTOR)

Websites

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Cold War International History Project, Wilson Center


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1. International Relations and International History

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1(a) Introduction

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1(b) History and IR

Reading

Required Reading

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Scott, Len (2017) ‘International History, 1900-1999,’ Chapter 3 of Baylis, Smith & Owens, The Globalization of World Politics: an introduction to international relations, pp.52-67

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Haber, Stephen, David Kennedy & Stephen Krasner (1997) ‘Brothers under the Skin: Diplomatic History and International Relations,’ International Security, Vol. 22, No. 1 (Summer), pp. 34-43

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Gaddis, John Lewis (1997) ‘History, Theory and Common Ground,’ International Security, Vol. 22, No. 1 (Summer), pp. 75-85

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Schroeder, Paul (1997) ‘History and International Relations Theory: Not use or abuse, but fit or misfit,’ International Security, Vol. 22, No. 1 (Summer), pp. 64-74

Recommended Reading

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Costigliola, Frank & Michael Hogan (2016) Explaining the History of American Foreign Relations (Cambridge: CUP) SEE SIDEBAR

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May, Ernest, Richard Rosecrance & Zara Steiner (2010) History and Neorealism (Cambridge: CUP) SEE SIDEBAR

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Elman, Colman & Miriam Fendius Elman (1997) ‘Diplomatic History and International Relations Theory: Respecting difference and crossing boundaries,’ International Security, Vol. 22, No. 1 (Summer), pp. 5-21

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Levy, Jack S. (1997) ‘Too Important to Leave to the Other: History and Political Science in the study of International Relations,’ International Security, Vol. 22, No. 1 (Summer), pp. 22-33

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George, Alexander (1996) ‘Knowledge for Statecraft: The challenge for Political Science and History,’ International Security, Vol. 22, No. 1 (Summer), pp. 44-52

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Steiner, Zara (1997) ‘On Writing International History: chaps, maps and much more,’ International Affairs, Vol.73, No.3 (July), pp.531-546

Trachtenberg, Marc (2006) The Craft of International History: a guide to method (Princeton UP)
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    3. The Critical Analysis of Historical Texts

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    7. Writing up a Historical Research Project

Westad, Odd Arne (2000) Reviewing the Cold War: approaches, interpretations and theory (Routledge), Chapters 1-6
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    1. On Starting All Over Again

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    2. Bringing It Together

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    3. How (Not) to Study the Origins of the Cold War

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    4. Liberty or Death: the Cold War as US ideology

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    5. Social Science, History and the Cold War

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    6. A Certain Idea of Science

More Recommended Reading
  • Clark, Ian (2002) ‘International Relations: Divided by a common language?’ Government and Opposition, Vol.37, No.2, pp.271-279

  • Elman, Colin & Miriam Fendius Elman (2001) ‘Introduction: Negotiating International History and Politics,’ Chapter in Bridges and Boundaries: historians, political scientists and the study of International Relations (MIT Press)

  • Hill, Christopher & Pamela Beshoff (1994) Two Worlds of International Relations: academics, practitioners and the trade in ideas (Routledge), Chapters 1-4 & 11

  • May, Ernest (1984) ‘Writing Contemporary International History,’ Diplomatic History Vol.8, No.2 (April), pp.103-113

  • Woods, Ngaire (1996) ‘The Uses of Theory in the Study of International Relations,’ Chapter 1 in Explaining International Relations Since 1945 (Oxford: OUP)


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2. Agents, Structures and Ideas: The Origins of World War I

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Lecture 2 Presentation

Reading

Required Reading

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Westad, Odd Arne (2010) ‘The Cold War and the International History of the Twentieth Century,’ Chapter 1 in The Cambridge History of the Cold War, Volume 1 (Cambridge: CUP)

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Levy, Jack & John Vasquez (2014) The Outbreak of the First World War: structure, politics and decision-making (Cambridge: CUP), Introduction SEE SIDEBAR

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Trachtenberg, Marc (1991) ‘The Coming of the First World War: a reassessment,’ Chapter 2 in History and Strategy (Princeton UP)

Recommended Reading

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Afflerbach, Holger & David Stevenson (2007) An Improbable War? The outbreak of World War I and European political culture before 1914 (Berghahn Books) SEE SIDEBAR

Hamilton, Richard & Holger Herwig (2003) The Origins of World War I (Cambridge: CUP), Introduction
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    1. Introduction

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    14. Why Did it Happen?

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    15. On the Origins of the Catastrophe

SEE SIDEBAR
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Hamilton, Richard & Holger Herwig (2004) Decisions for War, 1914-1917 (Cambridge: CUP), Chapter 1, ‘The Great War: a review of the explanations’ SEE SIDEBAR

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Herwig, Holger (2015) ‘Through the Looking Glass: German strategic planning before 1914,’ The Historian, Vol.77, No.2, pp.290-314

Joll, James & Gordon Martel (2013) The Origins of the First World War (Routledge), Chapters 1-3
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    1. Introduction

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    2. The July Crisis, 1914

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    3. The Alliance System and the Old Diplomacy

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    Maps

Martel, Gordon (2017) The Origins of the First World War (Routledge) Chapters 1 & 2
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    1. The Problem

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    2. The Great Powers to 1900

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    Maps

McMeekin, Sean (2013) The Russian Origins of the First World War (Harvard UP)
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    Introduction: History from the Deep Freeze

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    1. The Strategic Imperative in 1914

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    Conclusion: The October Revolution and Historical Amnesia

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Mombauer, Annika (2013) ‘The Fischer Controversy 50 Years On,’ Journal of Contemporary History, Vol.48, No.2, pp.231-240

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Mulligan, William (2014) ‘Review Article: The Trial Continues,’ English Historical Review, Vol.CXXIX, No.538, pp.639-666

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von Strandmann, Hartmut (2013) ‘The Political and Historical Significance of the Fischer Controversy,’ Journal of Contemporary History, Vol.48, No.2, pp.251-270

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Otte, T.G. (2014) July Crisis: the world’s descent into war, summer 1914 (Cambridge: CUP) SEE SIDEBAR

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Schroeder, Paul (1972) ‘World War I as Galloping Gertie: A reply to Joachim Remak,’ The Journal of Modern History, Vol.44, No.3 (Sep), pp.319-345

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Strachan, Hew (2014) ‘Review Article: The Origins of the First World War,’ International Affairs, Vol.90, No.2, pp.429-439

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Zuber, Terence (1999) ‘The Schlieffen Plan Reconsidered,’ War in History, Vol.6, No.3, pp.262-305

More Recommended Reading
  • Clark, Christopher (2013) The Sleepwalkers: how Europe went to war in 1914 (Penguin)

  • Mulligan, William (2017) The Origins of the First World War (Cambridge:CUP)


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3. The Triumph of Liberalism? The League of Nations and Interwar Internationalism

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Lecture 3 Presentation

Reading

Required Reading

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Pedersen, Susan (2007) ‘Back to the League of Nations,’ The American Historical Review, Vol.112, No.4 (Oct), pp.1091-1117

Sluga, Glenda (2015) Internationalism in the Age of Nationalism (University of Pennsylvania Press)
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    Introduction

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    1. The International Turn

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    4. What is the International?

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    Afterword

Recommended Reading

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Boyce, Robert (2009) The Great Interwar Crisis (Palgrave Macmillan) SEE SIDEBAR

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Cabanes, Bruno (2014) The Great War and the Origins of Humanitarianism (Cambridge: CUP) SEE SIDEBAR

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Sluga, Glenda & Patricia Clavin (2017) Internationalisms: a twentieth-century history (Cambridge: CUP), Chapter 5, ‘Men and Markets: Global capital and the international economy’ SEE SIDEBAR

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Frank, Matthew & Jessica Reinisch (2014) ‘Refugees and the Nation-State in Europe, 1919-59,’ Journal of Contemporary History, Vol.49, No.3, pp.477-490

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Gorman, Daniel (2012) The Emergence of International Society in the 1920s (Cambridge: CUP) SEE SIDEBAR

Henig, Ruth & Alan Sharp (2010) The League of Nations (Haus), Chapters 1,4,5 & 8
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    1. One Vision, Many Approaches

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    4. The Development of the League in the 1920s

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    5. The League and Disarmament

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    8. The Lessons of the League: Long live the UN

Kott, Sandrine & Joëlle Droux (2013) Globalizing Social Rights: the international labour organization and beyond (International Labour Office)
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    Introduction: A Global History Written from the ILO

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    1. Social and Political Networks: the role of the ILO

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    9. Dictatorship and International Organizations

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    10. US New Deal Social Policy Experts and the ILO, 1948-1954

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    11. Industrial States and Transnational Exchanges of Social Policies

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    12. The ILO as a Forum for Developing and Demonstrating a Nordic Model

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    13. What’s in a Living Standard?

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    14. Developing Nutritional Standards and Food Policy

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Little, Branden (2011) ‘Humanitarian Relief in Europe and the Analogue of War, 1914-1918,’ Chapter in Jennifer Keene & Michael Neiberg, Finding Common Ground: new directions in First World War studies (Brill)

Pedersen, Susan (2015) The Guardians: The League of Nations and the Crisis of Empire (Oxford:OUP)
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    Introduction: Guardians Assemble

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    1. Of Covenants and Carve-ups

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    2. Rules of the Game

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    3. A Whole World Talking

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    6. A Pacific People Says No

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    7. The Struggle over Sovereignty

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    10. Legitimation Crisis

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    12. When Internationalism Stopped Working

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    Conclusion: Mandatory Statehood in the Making

Steiner, Zara (2005) The Lights That Failed: European international history, 1919-1933 (Oxford: OUP)
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    4. The Primacy of Economics

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    5. The Primacy of Nationalism

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    7. The Geneva Dream: The League and Post-War Internationalism

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    Part II Conclusion: The Hinge Years, 1929-1933

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Webster, Andrew (2005) ‘From Versailles to Geneva: The many forms of interwar disarmament,’ The Journal of Strategic Studies, Vol.29, No.2, pp.225-246

More Recommended Reading
  • Clavin, Patricia (2013) Securing the World Economy: the reinvention of the League of Nations, 1920-1946 (Oxford: OUP)

  • Geyer, Martin & Johannes Paulmann (2001) The Mechanics of Internationalism: culture, society and politics from the 1840s to the First World War (Oxford: OUP)

  • Mazower, Mark (2013) Governing the World: the history of an idea (Penguin)

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4. Responsibility: From World War II to the Cold War

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Lecture 4 Presentation

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See also MSt. Cold War Module

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Watch Cold War Series (especially Episodes 1-4)

Reading

Required Reading

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Lundestad, Geir (2000) ‘How (Not) to Study the Origins of the Cold War,’ Chapter 3 in Odd Arne Westad, Reviewing the Cold War

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van Alstein, Maarten (2009) ‘The Meaning of Hostile Bipolarization: interpreting the origins of the Cold War,’ Cold War History, Vol.9, No.3, pp.301-319

Recommended Reading

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Copeland, Dale (2001) ‘Bipolarity, Shifting Power and the Origins of the Cold War, 1945-1950,’ Chapter 6 in The Origins of Major War (Cornell UP) SEE SIDEBAR

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Cox, Michael & Caroline Kennedy-Pipe (2005) ‘The Tragedy of American Diplomacy? Rethinking the Marshall Plan,’ Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol.7, No.1 (Winter), pp.97-134

Craig, Campbell & Sergey Radchenko (2008) The Atomic Bomb and the Origins of the Cold War (Yale UP)
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    Introduction

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    5. The Baruch Plan and the Onset of American Cold War

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    6. Stalin and the Burial of International Control

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    Conclusion

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Crockatt, Richard (1995) ‘The Origins of the Cold War and the Problems of Synthesis: A review of recent work,’ Contemporary European History, Vol.4, No.3, pp.383-392

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Engerman, David (2012) ‘Ideology and the Origins of the Cold War, 1917-1962,’ Chapter 2 in The Cambridge History of the Cold War, Volume 1, pp.20-43

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Frazier, Robert (2009) ‘Kennan, “Universalism” and the Truman Doctrine,’ Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol.11, No.2 (Spring), pp.3-34

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Leffler, Melvyn (2012) ‘The Emergence of an American Grand Strategy,’ Chapter 4 in Cambridge History of the Cold War, Volume 1, pp.67-89

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Halliday, Fred (1986) ‘Cold Wars, Old and New,’ Chapter 1 in The Making of the Second Cold War (Verso Books)

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Herz, John (1950) ‘Idealist Internationalism and the Security Dilemma,’ World Politics, Vol.2, No.2 (Jan), pp.157-180

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Heuser, Beatrice (1991) ‘NSC-68 and the Soviet Threat: a new perspective on Western threat perception and policy making,’ Review of International Studies, Vol.17, No.1 (Jan), pp.17-40

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Hitchcock, William (2012) ‘The Marshall Plan and the Creation of the West,’ Chapter 8 in Cambridge History of the Cold War, Volume 1 (Cambridge: CUP)

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Hogan, Michael (1987) The Marshall Plan: America, Britain and the reconstruction of Western Europe (Cambridge: CUP) (large file) SEE SIDEBAR

Leffler, Melvyn & David Painter (2005) Origins of the Cold War: An international history (Taylor & Francis)
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    Introduction

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    1. National Security and US Foreign Policy

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    2. Stalin and Soviet Foreign Policy

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    3. The Atomic Bomb and the Origins of the Cold War

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    4. Stalin and the Bomb

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Macdonald, Douglas (1995) ‘Communist Bloc Expansion in the Early Cold War: challenging realism, refuting revisionism,’ International Security, Vol.20, No.3 (Winter), pp.152-188

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Maier, Charles (1991) ‘Introduction: The Issue then is Germany and with it the Future of Europe,’ Introductory chapter in The Marshall Plan and Germany (New York: Berg Press)

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Trachtenberg, Marc (2008) ‘The United States and Eastern Europe in 1945: A reassessment,’ Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol.10, No.4 (Fall), pp.94-132

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Young, Ken (2013) ‘Revising NSC-68,’ Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol.15, No.1 (Winter), pp.3-33

More Recommended Reading
  • Deutscher, Isaac (1967) ‘Myths of the Cold War,’ Chapter in David Horowitz, Containment and Revolution: Western policy towards social revolution, 1917 to Vietnam (London: Blond)

  • Folly, Martin (1988) ‘Breaking the Vicious Circle: Britain, the United States and the genesis of the North Atlantic Treaty,’ Diplomatic History, Vol.12, No.1 (Jan), pp.59-77

  • Gaddis, John Lewis (1983) ‘The Emerging Post-Revisionist Synthesis on the Origins of the Cold War,’ Diplomatic History, Vol.7, No.1 (July), pp.171-190

  • Gaddis, John Lewis (2011) George F. Kennan: an American Life (Penguin)

  • Ireland, Timothy (1981) Creating the Entangling Alliance: the origins of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (Greenwood Press)

  • Jensen, Kenneth (1993) Origins of the Cold War: the Novikov, Kennan and Roberts “long telegrams” of 1946 (US Institute of Peace Press)

  • Kent, John (2014) ‘British Policy Overseas,’ Chapter 3 in Beatrice Heuser & Robert O’Neill, Securing Peace in Europe, 1945-1962 (Palgrave Macmillan)

  • Kunz, Diane (1998) ‘The Marshall Plan Reconsidered: a complex of motives,’ Chapter in Peter Grose, The Marshall Plan and its Legacy (W.W. Norton & Co.)

  • Levering, Ralph (2001) Debating the Origins of the Cold War: American and Russian perspectives (Rowan & Littlefield)

  • Lucas, Scott (1999) Freedom’s War: the US crusade against the Soviet Union, 1945-56 (New York UP)

  • Lukacs, John (2007) George Kennan: A study of character (Yale UP)

  • May, Ernest (1993) American Cold War Strategy: interpreting NSC-68 (Palgrave Macmillan)

  • Reynolds, David (1994) The Origins of the Cold War in Europe: international perspectives (Yale UP)

  • Smith, Timothy (1999) Opposition Beyond the Water’s Edge: liberal internationalists, pacifists and containment, 1945-1953 (Greenwood Press)

  • Smith, Joseph (ed) (1990) The Origins of NATO (University of Exeter Press)

  • Stephanson, Anders (1989) Kennan and the Art of Foreign Policy (Harvard UP)

  • Thomas, Hugh (1986) Armed Truce: the beginnings of the Cold War, 1945-46 (Sceptre)

  • Danchev, Alex (1995) Fin de Siècle: the meaning of the twentieth century (I.B. Tauris)

  • Walker, Samuel (1981) ‘Historians and Cold War Origins,’ Chapter in Gerald Haines & J.Samuel Walker, American Foreign Relations: a historiographical review (Greenwood)


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5. Analogical Thinking and International Relations – the Space Race

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Lecture 5 Presentation

Cold War Episode 8: Sputnik

Reading

Required Reading

Peterson, M (2005) International Regimes for the Final Frontier (State University of New York Press), esp. Ch.3
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    1. Creating Regimes for “The Final Frontier”

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    2. The Institutional Context of Negotiations

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    3. The Locational Classification of Outer Space

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    6. Military Activity in Outer Space

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    7. Exploring and Using the Moon

Sheehan, Michael (2007) The International Politics of Space (Routledge)
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    Introduction

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    1. Perceptions of Space and International Political Theory

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    2. Propaganda and National Interest

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    3. The New Frontier

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    4. International Cooperation in Space

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    11. Cooperation and Competition in the Post-Cold War Era

Recommended Reading

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Burrows, William (1999) This New Ocean: The story of the first space age (Random House), Chapter 1

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Griffin, Penny (2009) ‘The Spaces Between US: The gendered politics of outer space,’ Chapter 4 in Natalie Bormann & Michael Sheehan, Securing Outer Space (Routledge)

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Mumford, Andrew (2015) ‘Parallels, Prescience and the Past: analogical reasoning and contemporary international politics,’ International Politics, Vol.52, No.1, pp.1-19

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Peoples, Columba (2008) ‘Sputnik and “Skill Thinking” revisited: technological determinism in American responses to the Soviet missile threat,’ Cold War History, Vol.8, No.1, pp.55-75

Peterson, M (2005) International Regimes for the Final Frontier (State University of New York Press), esp. Ch.3
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    1. Creating Regimes for “The Final Frontier”

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    2. The Institutional Context of Negotiations

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    3. The Locational Classification of Outer Space

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    6. Military Activity in Outer Space

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    7. Exploring and Using the Moon

Sage, Daniel (2014) How Outer Space Made America: geography, organization and the cosmic sublime (Routledge)
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    8. Traumatizing Spaceflight

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    9. Critical Cosmopolitics

More Recommended Reading
  • Arendt, Hannah (2006) Between Past and Future: eight exercises in political thought (Penguin), Chapter 8, ‘The Conquest of State and the Stature of Man’

  • Cadbury, Deborah (2006) Space Race: the battle to rule the heavens (Harper Perennial)

  • Divine, Robert (1993) The Sputnik Challenge (Oxford: OUP)

  • McDougall, Walter (1997) The Heavens and the Earth: a political history of the space age (John Hopkins UP)

  • Von Bencke, Matthew (1996) The Politics of Space: a history of Us-Soviet/Russian competition and cooperation in space (Routledge)


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6. Political Psychology and International Relations – the Cuban Missile Crisis

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Lecture 6 Presentation

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Watch Cold War Series (24 episodes)

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Watch Nuclear Documentaries on RobertMcNamara.org

Cold War Episode 10: Cuba

Cuban Missile Crisis: Part 1

Defying Uncle Sam

Cuban Missile Crisis: Part 2

Eyeball to Eyeball

Reading

Required Reading

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Allison, Graham (2016) ‘The Cuban Missile Crisis,’ in Steve Smith, Amelia Hadfield & Tim Dunne (eds), Foreign Policy: theories, actors, cases (Oxford: OUP)

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Lebow, Richard Ned (1994) ‘Why did Khrushchev Miscalculate?’ Chapter 4 in Lebow & Janice Gross Stein, We All Lost the Cold War (Princeton UP)

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Steinberg, Blema (1991) ‘Shame and Humiliation in the Cuban Missile Crisis: a psychoanalytic perspective,’ Political Psychology, Vol.12, No.4, pp.653-690

Recommended Reading

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Perri 6 (2011) Explaining Political Judgement (Cambridge University Press) SEE SIDEBAR

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Allyn, Bruce, James G. Blight & David A. Welch (1989) ‘Essence of Revision: Moscow, Havana and the Cuban Missile Crisis,’ International Security, Vol.14, No.3 (Winter), pp.136-172

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Chapman, Roger (2007) ‘Cold War Legacies: the migration and transformation of popular/unpopular culture,’ Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol.9, No.3 (Summer), pp.137-143

Freedman, Lawrence (2000) Kennedy’s Wars: Berlin, Cuba, Laos and Vietnam (Oxford: OUP)
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    18. Searching for Missiles

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    19. The Options Debated

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    20. Blockade

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    21. Military Steps

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    22. Political Steps

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    23. The Denouement

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    24. A Crisis Managed

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    25. Aftermath

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    26. Back to Square One

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Fursenko, Aleksandr & Timothy Naftali (2001) One Hell of a Gamble: Khrushchev, Castro, Kennedy and the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1958-1964 (W.W. Norton & Co.) SEE SIDEBAR

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Herschberg, James (2010) ‘The Cuban Missile Crisis,’ Ch.4 in The Cambridge History of the Cold War, Volume 2 (Cambridge: CUP)

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Jervis, Robert (1989) ‘Rational Deterrence: theory and evidence,’ World Politics, Vol.41, No.2, pp.183-207

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McNamara, Robert S. (1983) ‘The Military Role of Nuclear Weapons: perceptions and misperceptions,’ Foreign Affairs, Vol.62, No.3, pp.59-80

Perri 6 (2011) Explaining Political Judgement (Cambridge: CUP), Chapters 4-6
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    4. October 1962, Before and After

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    5. The Khrushchev Regime

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    6. The Kennedy Administration

SEE SIDEBAR

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Trachtenberg, Marc (1985) ‘The Influence of Nuclear Weapons in the Cuban Missile Crisis,’ International Security, Vol.10, No.1, pp.137-163

More Recommended Reading
  • Allison, Graham & Philip Zelikow (1999) Essence of Decision: explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis (Pearson)

  • Blight, James G. & David A. Welch (1990) On the Brink: Americans and Soviets reexamine the Cuban Missile Crisis (Farrar, Straus & Giroux)

  • Dobbs, Michael (2009) One Minute to Midnight: Kennedy, Khrushchev and Castro on the brink of nuclear war (Arrow)

  • Fursenko, Aleksandr & Timothy Naftali (1999) Khrushchev’s Cold War: the inside story of an American adversary (W.W. Norton & Co.)

  • May, Ernest & Philip Zelikow (1997) The Kennedy Tapes: inside the White House during the Cuban Missile Crisis (W.W. Norton & Co.)

  • Munton, Don & David A. Welch (2011) The Cuban Missile Crisis: a concise history (Oxford: OUP)

  • Stern, Sheldon (2003) Averting “the final failure”: John F. Kennedy and the secret Cuban Missile Crisis meetings (Stanford UP)

  • Taubman, William (2003) Khrushchev: the man and his era (Simon & Schuster)


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7. Interdependence and International Relations – the Rise and Fall of Détente

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Lecture 7 Presentation

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See also Lecture 5, Cold War module

Cold War Episode 16: Détente, 1969-1975

Reading

Required Reading

Logevall, Fredrik & Andrew Preston (eds) (2008) Nixon in the World: American foreign relations, 1969-1977 (Oxford: OUP)
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    1. An Elusive Grand Design

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    3. Henry Kissinger and American Grand Strategy

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    5. Nixon, Kissinger and the Opening to China

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    7. The Frailties of Grand Strategies

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Zubok, Vladislav (2008) ‘The Soviet Union and Détente of the 1970s,’ Cold War History, Vol.8, No.4, pp.427-447

Recommended Reading

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Allen, David (2015) ‘Realism and Malarkey: Henry Kissinger’s State Department, Détente and domestic consensus,’ Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol.17, No.3, pp.184-219

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Del Pero, Mario (2010) The Eccentric Realist: Henry Kissinger and the shaping of American foreign policy (Harper) SEE SIDEBAR

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Ferguson, Niall (2015) ‘The Meaning of Kissinger: a realist reconsidered,’ Foreign Affairs, Vol.94, pp.134-143

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Hanhimäki, Jussi (2002) ‘”Dr Kissinger” or “Mr Henry”? Kissingerology, Thirty Years and counting,’ Diplomatic History, Vol.27, No.5, pp.637-676

Hanhimäki, Jussi (2004) The Flawed Architect: Henry Kissinger and American foreign policy (Oxford: OUP)
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    1. The Aspiring Statesman

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    2. Kissinger, Nixon and the Challenges of ’69

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    3. Bombs and Back Channels

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    4. Progress and Promise

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    5. Negotiating in the Shadow of War

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    6. Crises and Opportunities

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Kaplan, Robert (1999) ‘Kissinger, Metternich and Realism,’ The Atlantic, June 1999 issue

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Khoo, Nicholas (2006) ‘Realism Redux: Investigating the causes and effects of Sino-US rapprochement,’ Cold War History, Vol.5, No.4, pp.529-549

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Sarotte, Mary Elise (2001) Dealing with the Devil: East Germany, détente and Ostpolitik, 1969-1973 (University of North Carolina Press) SEE SIDEBAR

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Schulzinger, Robert (2010) ‘Détente in the Nixon-Ford Years, 1969-1976,’ Chapter 18, Cambridge History of the Cold War, Volume 2 (Cambridge CUP)

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Schwartz, Thomas (2011) ‘Henry Kissinger: realism, domestic politics and the struggle against exceptionalism in American foreign policy,’ Diplomacy & Statecraft, Vol.22, No.1, pp.121-141

Suri, Jeremy (2007) Henry Kissinger and the American Century (Harvard UP)
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    Introduction: the making of the American Century

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    5. A Statesman’s Revolution

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Wenger, Andreas (2004) ‘Crisis and Opportunity: NATO’s transformation and the multilateralization of détente, 1966-1968,’ Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol.6, No.1 (Winter), pp.22-74

More Recommended Reading
  • Bundy, William (1998) A Tangled Web: the making of foreign policy in the Nixon presidency (I.B. Tauris) (See copy in the study)

  • Dallek, Robert (2008) Nixon and Kissinger: partners in power (Harper) (See copy in the study)

  • Horne, Alistair (2009) Kissinger: 1973, the crucial year (Simon & Schuster)

  • Kissinger, Henry (1969) American Foreign Policy: three essays (W.W. Norton & Co.)

  • Litwak, Robert (1984) Détente and the Nixon Doctrine: American foreign policy and the pursuit of stability, 1969-1976 (Cambridge: CUP)

  • Loth, Wilfried (2002) Overcoming the Cold War: a history of détente, 1950-1991 (AIAA)

  • Stevenson, Richard (1985) The Rise and Fall of Détente: relaxations of tension in US-Soviet relations, 1953-1984 (Palgrave)


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8. Domestic Politics and International Relations – Culture, Counter-culture, Race

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Lecture 8 Presentation

Cold War Episode 13: Make Love Not War: the 1960s

Reading

Required Reading

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Suri, Jeremy (2010) ‘Counter Cultures: the rebellions against the Cold War order, 1965-1975,’ Chapter 22, The Cambridge History of the Cold War, Volume 2 (Cambridge: CUP)

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Woods, Jeff (2010) ‘The Cold War and the Struggle for Civil Rights,’ Organization of American Historians Magazine of History, October 2010, pp.13-17

Recommended Reading

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Borstelmann, Thomas (2003) The Cold War and the Color Line: American race relations in the global arena (Harvard UP), Chapter 3, ‘The Last Hurrah of the Old Colour Line’

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Dudziak, Mary (2000) Cold War Civil Rights: race and the image of American democracy (Princeton UP), Chapter 5, ‘Losing Control in Camelot’

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Daum, Andreas, Lloyd Gardner & Wilfried Mausbach (2003) America, the Vietnam War and the World: comparative and international perspectives (Cambridge: CUP) SEE SIDEBAR

Isserman, Maurice & Michael Kazin (2000) America Divided: the civil war of the 1960s (Oxford: OUP)
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    8. The Making of a Youth Culture

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    9. The New Left

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    10. The Fall of the Great Society

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    11. The Conservative Revival

Jarausch, Konrad & Michael Klarman (2004) From Jim Crow to Civil Rights: the Supreme Court and the struggle for racial equality (Oxford: OUP)
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    Introduction

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    6. School Desegregation

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    7. Brown and the Civil Rights Movement

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    Conclusion

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Keohane, Robert (2005) After Hegemony: cooperation and discord in the world political economy (Princeton UP) (see copy in the study) SEE SIDEBAR

Klimke, Martin (2009) The Other Alliance: student protest in West Germany and the United States in the global sixties (Princeton UP)
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    6. Student Protest and International Relations

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    Conclusion

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Fink, Carole, Philipp Gassert & Detlef Junker (1998) 1968, The World Transformed (Cambridge: CUP), especially Ch.4, Mark Kramer, ‘The Czechoslovak Crisis and the Brezhnev Doctrine’ SEE SIDEBAR

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Osgood, Kenneth (2002) ‘Hearts and Minds: the unconventional Cold War,’ Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol.4, No.2 (spring), pp.85-107

Poiger, Uta (2000) Jazz, Rock and Rebels: Cold War politics and American culture in a divided Germany (University of California Press)
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    Introduction

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    1. American Culture in East and West German Reconstruction

Robin, Ron Theodore (2003) The Making of the Cold War Enemy: culture and politics in the military-intellectual complex (Princeton UP)
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    2. The Culture of Think Tanks

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    9. Vietnam: From “Hearts and Minds” to Rational Choice

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Sarantakes, Nicholas (2005) ‘Cold War Pop Culture and the Image of US Foreign Policy: the perspective of the original Star Trek Series,’ The Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol.7, No.4 (Fall), pp.74-103

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Skrentny, John (1998) ‘The Effect of the Cold War on African-American Civil Rights: America and the world audience, 1945-1968,’ Theory and Society, Vol.27, No.2, pp.237-285

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Stears, Marc (2010) ‘Freedom is Everybody’s Job,’ unpublished paper on discontinued website

Varon, Jeremy (2004) Bringing the War Home: the Weather Underground, the Red Army Faction and revolutionary violence in the sixties and seventies (University of California Press)
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    Introduction

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    4. The Excesses and Limits of Revolutionary Violence

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Glants, Musya & Pamela Kachurin (2002) ‘Culture, the Soviet Union and the Cold War,’ Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol.4, No.1, pp.3-5

More Recommended Reading
  • Baron, Samuel (2001) Bloody Saturday in the Soviet Union: Novocherkassk, 1962 (Stanford UP)

  • Garfinkle, Adam (1995) Telltale Hearts: the origins and impact of the Vietnam antiwar movement (Griffin)

  • Hanhimäki, Jussi (ed) (2003) The Cold War: a history in documents and eyewitness accounts (Oxford: OUP), especially Section 13, ‘Cultures and Mindsets’

  • Isaacs, Jeremy & Taylor Downing (1998) Cold War: for 45 years the world held its breath (Bantam Press), read chapter entitled ‘The Culture Wars’

  • Krenn, Michael (1998) Race and US Foreign Policy During the Cold War

  • Medovoi, Leerom (2005) Rebels: youth and the Cold War origins of identity (Brown UP)

  • Suri, Jeremy (2003) Power and Protest: global revolution and the rise of détente (Harvard UP)

  • Saunders, Frances Stonor (2000) The Cultural Cold War: the CIA and the world of arts and letters (The New Press)


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9. Revolution, Counter-revolution and International Relations – the Second Cold War

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Lecture 9 Presentation

Cold War Episode 19: Freeze, 1977-1981

Reading

Required Reading

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Halliday, Fred (1986) ‘Cold Wars, Old and New,’ Chapter 1 in The Making of the Second Cold War (Verso Books)

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Cox, Michael (2011) ‘Fred Halliday, Marxism and the Cold War,’ International Affairs, Vol.87, No.5, pp.1107-1122

Recommended Reading

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Ougaard, Morten (1984) ‘The Origins of the Second World War,’ New Left Review, Vol.1, No.47, pp.61-75

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Halliday, Fred (1984) ‘The Conjuncture of the Seventies and After: a reply to Ougaard,’ New Left Review, Vol.1, No.147, pp.76-83

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Manchanda, Arnav (2009) ‘When Truth is Stranger than Fiction: the Able Archer incident,’ Cold War History, Vol.9, No.1, pp.111-133

Scott, James (1996) Deciding to Intervene: the Reagan doctrine and American foreign policy (Duke UP)
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    8. Conclusions: The Nature and Lessons of the Reagan Doctrine

More Recommended Reading
  • Chomsky, Noam, Jonathan Steele & Jonathan Gittings (1982) Superpowers in Collision: the Cold War now (Penguin)

  • Cox, Michael (2010) ‘Radical Theory and the New Cold War,’ Chapter 3 in Mike Bowker & Robin Brown, From Cold War to Collapse: theory and world politics in the 1980s (Cambridge: CUP)

  • Dallek, Robert (1999) Ronald Reagan: the politics of symbolism (Harvard UP)

  • Dumbrell, John (1993) The Carter Presidency: a re-evaluation (Manchester UP)

  • Fitzgerald, Frances (2000) Way Out There in the Blue: Reagan, Star Wars and the end of the Cold War (Simon & Schuster)

  • Garthoff, Raymond (1994) Détente and Confrontation: American-Soviet relations from Nixon to Reagan (Brookings Institution)

  • Strong, Robert A. (2000) Working in the World: Jimmy Carter and the making of American foreign policy (Louisiana State UP)


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10. Agents and Structures in International Relations – the End of the Cold War I

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Lecture 10 Presentation

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See also Lecture 7, Cold War module

Cold War Episode 23: The Wall Comes Down, 1989

Cold War Episode 24: Conclusions, 1989-1991

Reading

Required Reading

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Brooks, Stephen & William Wohlforth (2000) ‘Power, Globalization and the End of the Cold War: re-evaluating a landmark case for ideas,’ International Security, Vol.25, No.3, (Winter), pp.5-53

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Brown, Archie (2007) ‘Perestroika and the End of the Cold War,’ Cold War History, Vol.7, No.1, pp.1-17

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Koslowski, Rey & Friedrich Kratochwil (1994) ‘Understanding Change in International Relations: the Soviet demise and the international system,’ International Organization, Vol.48, No.2, pp.215-247

Recommended Reading

Bisley, Nick (2004) End of the Cold War and the Causes of Soviet Collapse (Palgrave Macmillan)
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    1. The Cold War and the Soviet State

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    4. Ending the Cold War

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    5. The Vulnerability of a Great Power

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Brown, Archie (1997) The Gorbachev Factor (Oxford: OUP) (online)

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Deudney, Daniel & John G. Ikenberry (1991) ‘Soviet Reforms and the End of the Cold War: explaining large-scale historical change,’ Review of International Studies, Vol.17, No.3, pp.225-250

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Evangelista, Matthew (2001) ‘Norms, Heresthetics and the End of the Cold War,’ Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol.3, No.2 (Winter), pp.5-35

Herrmann, Richard & Richard Ned Lebow (2004) Ending the Cold War: interpretations, causation and the study of International Relations (Pan Macmillan)
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    1. What was the Cold War and Why did it End?

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    2. Gorbachev and the End of the Cold War

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    3. Regional Conflicts as Turning Points

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    4. Turning Points in Arms Control

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    6. German Reunification

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    7. Leadership and the End of the Cold War

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    8. Understanding the End of the Cold War as a Nonlinear Confluence

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    9. Learning from the End of the Cold War

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Lundestad, Geir (2000) ‘”Imperial Overstretch”, Mikhail Gorbachev and the End of the Cold War,’ Cold War History, Vol.1, No.1, pp.1-20

Pons, Silvio & Federico Romero (2005) Reinterpreting the End of the Cold War: issues, interpretations, periodizations (Routledge)
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    1. The Cold War as an Era of Imperial Rivalry

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    2. Power, Politics and the Long Duration of the Cold War

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    5. Beginnings of the End: how the Cold War crumbled

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    11. Gorbachev and the Demise of East European Communism

Sarotte, M.E. (2009) 1989: The struggle to create post-Cold War Europe (Princeton UP)
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    Introduction: Creating Post-Cold-War Europe: 1989 and the Architecture of Order

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    Conclusion: The Legacy of 1989 and 1990

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    Afterword: Revisiting 1989-90 and the Origins of NATO Expansion

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Suri, Jeremy (2002) ‘Explaining the End of the Cold War: a new historical consensus?’ Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol.4, No.4, pp.60-92

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Zubok, Vladislav (2002) ‘Gorbachev and the End of the Cold War: perspectives on history and personality,’ Cold War History, Vol.2, No.2, pp.61-100

More Recommended Reading
  • Checkel, Jeffrey (1997) Ideas and International Political Change: Soviet/Russian behaviour and the end of the Cold War (Yale UP)

  • Evangelista, Matthew (2002) Unarmed Forces: the transnational movement to end the Cold War (Cornell UP)

  • Halliday, Fred (1994) Rethinking International Relations (Palgrave) read chapter 9

  • Pearson, Raymond (2002) The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Empire (Palgrave)

  • Thomas, Daniel (2001) The Helsinki Effect: international norms, human rights and the demise of communism (Princeton UP)


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11. Prediction in International Relations – the End of the Cold War II

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Lecture 11 Presentation

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See also Lecture 7, Cold War module

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Watch Cold War Series (24 episodes)

Reading

Required Reading

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Cox, Michael (2009) ‘Why Did we get the End of the Cold War Wrong?’ British Journal of Politics and International Relations, Vol.11, No.2, pp.161-176

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Gaddis, John Lewis (1993) ‘International Relations Theory and the End of the Cold War,’ International Security, Vol.17, No.3 (Winter, 1992-93) pp.5-58

Recommended Reading

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Cox, Michael (1994) ‘Rethinking the End of the Cold War,’ Review of International Studies, Vol.20, No.2, pp.87-200

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English, Robert (1997) ‘Sources, Methods and Competing Perspectives on the End of the Cold War,’ Diplomatic History, Vol.21, No.2, pp.283-294

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Heuser, Beatrice (2014) ‘Looking Back: a quarter of a century after the Cold War,’ Cold War History, Vol.14, No.4, pp.455-459

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Hopmann, Terrence (2003) ‘Adapting International Relations Theory to the End of the Cold War,’ Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol.5, No.3 (Summer), pp.96-101

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Ray, James Lee & Bruce Russett (1996) ‘The Future as Arbiter of Theoretical Controversies: predictions, explanations and the end of the Cold War,’ British Journal of Political Science, Vol.26, No.4, pp.441-470

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Wohlforth, William (1998) ‘Review: Reality Check: revising theories of international politics in response to the end of the Cold War,’ World Politics, Vol.50, No.4, pp.650-680

Xenakis, Christopher (2002) What Happened to the Soviet Union? How and why American Sovietologists were caught by surprise (Praeger)
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    Introduction: Sovietological Myths

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    4. Sovietology in a Funk: Neoconservatism and American Scholarship on the Soviet Union

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    6. Surprised by Gorbachev

More Recommended Reading
  • Bueno de Mesquita, Bruce (2002) Predicting Politics, read chapter 4

  • Lebow, Richard Ned & Thomas Risse-Kappen (1992) International Relations Theory and the End of the Cold War (Columbia UP) (copy ordered)

  • Allan, Pierre & Kjell Goldmann (1992) The End of the Cold War: evaluating theories of international relations (Springer), read ‘What is it that changed with the end of the Cold War? An analysis of the problem of identifying and explaining change’


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Assessment

Examination (75%)

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Example exam questions

Essay Questions (25%)

Candidates are required to produce a 1,500-word book review of ONE of the following texts. The review should

  • Provide an overview of the contents of the book
  • Describe some of the foci or claims that cause the book to be distinctive or interesting
  • Supply an evaluation of its strengths and shortcomings
Choice of Books for Review
  1. Eric Hobsbawm (1994) The Age of Extremes: The short twentieth century, 1914-1991 (London: Vintage)
  2. Christopher Clark (2012) The Sleepwalkers: Hoe Europe went to war in 1914 (London: Penguin)
  3. Margaret Macmillan (2014) The War that Ended Peace: How Europe abandoned peace for the First World War (London: Profile)
  4. David Reynolds (2013) The Long Shadow: the legacies of the Great War in the twentieth century (London: Simon & Schuster)
  5. Robert Boyce (2009) The Great Interwar Crisis and the Collapse of Globalisation (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan)
  6. Campbell Craig & Friedrik Logevall (2009) America’s Cold War: The politics of insecurity (Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP)
  7. John Lewis Gaddis (2005) The Cold War (London: Penguin) (Hard copy in the study)
  8. Jonathan Haslam (2011) Russia’s Cold War: From the October Revolution to the Fall of the Wall (New Haven: Yale UP) SEE SIDEBAR
  9. Melvyn P. Leffler (2007) For the Soul of Mankind: The United States, the Soviet Union and the Cold War (New York: Hill & Wang) (Hard copy in the study)SEE SIDEBAR
  10. Norman Stone (2011) The Atlantic and its Enemies: A history of the Cold War (London: Penguin)
  11. Odd Arne Westad (2017) The Cold War: A world history (London: Allen Lane) (Hard copy in the study) SEE SIDEBAR

Materials for Book Review

Book Review examples
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    Burke, Edward (2015) ‘Review: Mad Mitch’s Tribal Law: Aden and the End of Empire,’ Small Wars & Insurgencies, Vol.26, No.6, pp.985-987

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    Holland, Ben (2009) ‘Review: Sovereignties: Contemporary Theory and Practice,’ Millennium: Journal of International Studies, Vol.37, No.3, pp.798-800

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    Holland, Ben (2011) ‘Review: Public Philosophy in a New Key,’ Contemporary Political Theory, No.10, pp.134-137

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    Mumford, Andrew() ‘Review: Losing Small Wars,’ Journal of Military History, citation unknown, pp.1312-1313

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    Mumford, Andrew (2017) ‘Review: International Politics and the Northern Ireland Conflict,’ Diplomacy & Statecraft, Vol.28, No.2, pp.376-377

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    Wylie, Neville (2011) ‘Review: Small Powers in the Age of Total War’

Cold War Historiography
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    Leffler, Melvyn (1996) ‘Inside Enemy Archives: The Cold War Reopened,’ Foreign Affairs, Vol.75, No.4 (Jul-Aug), pp.120-135

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    White, Timothy (2000) ‘Cold War Historiography: New Evidence behind Traditional Typographies,’ International Social Science Review, Vol.75, No.3-4, pp.35-46

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    Kojevnikov, Alexei (1998) ‘Toward a Post-Cold War Historiography,’ The Russian Review, Vol.57, No.3 (Jul), pp.455-459

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    Crapol, Edward (1987) ‘Some Reflections on the Historiography of the Cold War,’ The History Teacher, Vol.20, No.2 (Feb), pp.251-262

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    Romero, Federico (2014) ‘Cold War Historiography at the Crossroads,’ Cold War History, Vol.14, No.4, pp.685-703

Melvyn Leffler (2007) For the Soul of Mankind
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    Suri, Jeremy (2008) ‘Trapped in the Cold War,’ Reviews in American History, Vol.36, No.3 (Sep), pp.441-448

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    Maddux, Thomas (2008) ‘Review,’ The American Historical Review, Vol.113, No.4 (Oct), pp.1129-1130

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    Suri, Jeremy (2011) ‘Conflict and Co-operation in the Cold War,’ Journal of Contemporary History, Vol.46, No.1 (Jan), pp.5-9

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    Ikenberry, John (2007) ‘Review,’ Foreign Affairs, Vol.86, No.6 (Nov-Dec), p.183

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    Ragsdale, Hugh (2008) ‘Review,’ Slavic Review, Vol.67, No.3 (Fall), pp.765-767

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    Siracusa, Joseph (2008) ‘Review,’ The Journal of American History, Vol.95, No.1 (Jun), pp.262-263

 

Lecture: Melvyn Leffler, For the Soul of Mankind

 


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