Populism, Elites and Democracy

University of Nottingham (2020)

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Course Handbook

 

Populism is a contentious term. Over the last few decades we have witnessed a surge of ideologically diverse populist movements with strong democratically elected leaders acting in the name of ‘the people’ across the globe. For some, populism is illiberal, anti-pluralist and a danger to democracy; for others, it is the ultimate democratic act of popular sovereignty. This module examines the controversial relationship between populism and democracy. It surveys key theoretical developments in democratic theory and the populist literature to compare mainstream and alternative definitions/conceptualisations of populism. The modules examines the problematic relationship of elites (referred to as the 1%) – whether financial, social or political – in relation to liberal democracy and the masses (referred to as the 99%). It explores concepts and events key to the populist surge, such as ‘post-truth’ politics, the polarisation of politics, the ‘friend/enemy’ relation, ‘us versus them’ relation, ‘elites’, ‘democratic leadership’, ‘representation’, the 2019 prorogation of the British Parliament and ‘identification’. Students will have the opportunity to examine a range of different progressive and regressive populist leaders/associations, such as: Donald Trump, Vikor Orbán, Hugo Chávez, Brexit 2016, the UK general election 2019, the Yellow vests movement, the Danish People’s Party, Fidesz, the People’s Party, Occupy, Syriza, Podemos, Jobbik and Alternative for Germany.

General Reading

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Johnston, Steven (2020) ‘Rethinking White Supremacy on the Mall’


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Akkerman, Tjitske, Sarah L. de Lange and Matthjis Rooduijn (eds.) (2016) Radical Right-Wing Populist Parties in Western Europe (Abingdon and New York: Routledge) Chapters 1 and 13. SEE SIDEBAR


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Canovan, M.‘Trust the People.’ (1999) Populism and the Two Faces of Democracy. Political Studies 47(XLVII) pp.2-16.


Canovan, M. (2005) The People (Cambridge: Polity Press)


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Mudde, Cas & Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser (2012) Populism in Europe and the Americas: Threat or Corrective for Democracy? (Cambridge: CUP) SEE SIDEBAR


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Lefort, Claude (1988) Democracy and Political Theory, trans. David Macey (Cambridge: Polity) pp. 79-88 SEE SIDEBAR


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Gilbert, Daniel T. (1991). ‘How mental systems believe’ American Psychologist, 46(2), pp.107-119


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Kriesi, Hanspeter (2014) ‘The Populist Challenge,’ West European Politics, 37(2), pp.361-378


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Müller, Jan-Werner (2014) “The People Must Be Extracted from Within the People”: Reflections on Populism Constellations, 21(4),pp. 483-493


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Laclau, Ernesto (2018) On Populist Reason (London: Verso) SEE SIDEBAR

Le Bon, Gustav (2001) The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind (Albany: Batoche Books, original edition 1896), Book II, Chapters 1-4
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    1. Remote Factors of the Opinions and Beliefs of Crowds

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    2. Immediate Factors of the Opinions and Beliefs of Crowds

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    3. The Leaders of Crowds and their Means of Persuasion

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    4. Limitations of the Variability of the Beliefs and Opinions of Crowds

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    Notes


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Levitsky, Steven and Lucan A. Way (2002) ‘Elections Without Democracy: The Rise of Competitive Authoritarianism’ Journal of Democracy, 13(2) April, pp. 51-65


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Mouffe. C. (2005) ‘The End of Politics and the Challenge of Right-wing Populism,’ Chapter 2 in Francisco Panizza (ed.) Populism and the Mirror of Democracy (London: Verso) SEE SIDEBAR


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Mudde, Cas and Cristobel Kaltwasser (2017) Populism: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: OUP) SEE SIDEBAR


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Mudde, Cas (2004) ‘The Populist Zeitgeist’ Government and Opposition, 39(4), pp. 542-563


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Mudde, Cas (2007) Populist Radical Right Parties in Europe (Cambridge: CUP) SEE SIDEBAR


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Urbinati, Nadia (2019) ‘Political Theory of Populism’ Annual Review of Political Science, Vol. 22, pp.111-127


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Roberts, Kenneth M. (2007) ‘Latin America’s Populist Revival,’ SAIS Review of International Affairs, 27(1) Winter-Spring, pp. 3-15


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Schmitter (1991) ‘What Democracy is. And is not.’ Journal of Democracy, 2(3) Summer, pp.75-88


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Taggart, Paul (2000) Populism (Buckinghamshire: OUP) SEE SIDEBAR


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Weyland, Kurt (1999) ‘Neoliberal Populism in Latin America and Eastern Europe’ Comparative Politics, 31(4), pp.379-401

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Documentaries

Compulsory viewing

Steve Bannon Full Address and Q&A at Oxford Union

 


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Brexit: The Uncivil War

 


 

Recommended Viewing

The Rise of Populism: Expected or Unexpected?

 


 

John Judis, “The Populist Explosion”

 


 

The Rise of Populism and the Backlash Against the Elites, with Nick Clegg and Jonathan Haidt

 


 

Charles Murray on populism, globalization, “The Bell Curve,” and American politics today

 


 

The Rise of Populist Nationalism in Europe and the US

 


 

Are we witnessing a ‘new wave of far-right extremism’ in the UK? BBC Newsnight

 


 

Voices of Brexit

 


 

Steve Bannon extended interview on Europe’s far-right and Cambridge Analytica

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1. Introduction and the Rise of Populism

Week 2

Seminar 1: The rise of populism and Steve Bannon (Is he the charismatic and respectable face of populism?

Orienting Questions

  • Assess Mudde’s and Kaltwasser’s and Laclau’s respective conceptions of populism.
  • What do you understand by the term populism?
  • Name some populist leaders/movements and identify features you think that makes
    them populist.
  • Can you associate particular phrases, topics or issues with particular populist leaders?
  • Do populist leaders share any features with mainstream politicians?
  • What, if any, are the differences between politicians (such as Tony Blair, Ronald
    Regan, Pat Buchanan and Barack Obama) and populist leaders?
  • What is the relationship between populism and democracy?
  • Is populism a threat to democracy? Justify your answer.
  • How did you feel watching Steve Bannon. What did you feel? What do you think?
  • What techniques of interaction do you think Bannon was using?
Lecture 1 materials

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De Witte, Melissa (2020) ‘Populism is a political problem that is putting democracy at risk, Stanford scholars say’, Stanford News Service, 11 March

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Grzymala-Busse, Anna, Francis Fukuyama, Didi Kuo & Michael McFaul (2020) ‘Global Populisms and their Challenges’, Stanford University, March 2020

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‘The Corrupting of Democracy: Cynicism is gnawing at Western democracies,’ The Economist, 29 August 2019

Essential Reading

Watch Steve Bannon at Oxford Union

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Mudde, Cas (2007) ‘Constructing a Conceptual Framework,’ Chapter 1 in Populist Radial Right Parties in Europe (Cambridge: CUP) SEE SIDEBAR


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Rooduijn, Matthijs (2014) ‘The Nucleus of Populism: In search of the lowest common denominator,’ Government and Opposition, 49(4), pp.572–598.

Recommended Reading

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Kazin, Michael (2017) Introduction and Chapter 1 in The Populist Persuasion: An American History (Ithaca and London: Cornell UP), first published 1995. SEE SIDEBAR


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Jacques, Martin (2016) ‘The Death of Neoliberalism and the Crisis in Western Politics,’ The Guardian, 21 August.


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Mason, Paul (2015) ‘Podemos: how Europe’s political centre is being eaten by the radical left and nationalist right,’ The Guardian, 21 December.

Further Reading

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Akkerman, Tjitske (2003) ‘Populism and Democracy: Challenge or Pathology?’ Acta Politica, 38, pp.147-159.


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Abts, Koen and Stefan Rummens (2003) ‘Populism versus Democracy,’ Political Studies, 55(2), pp.405-424.


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Bakker, Bert, Matthijs Rooduijn & Gijs Schumacher (2016) ‘The Psychological Roots of Populist Voting: Evidence from the United States, the Netherlands and Germany’ European Journal of Political Research, 55(2), pp.302-320.


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Mudde, Cas (2004) Conclusion (pp.193-209) in Eatwell, Roger and Cas Mudde, Western Democracies and the New Extreme Right Challenge (London and New York: Routledge). SEE SIDEBAR


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Gilly, Adolfo (2007) ‘The Emerging “Threat” of Radical Populism’ NACLA, 25 September.


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Rovira Kaltwasser, Cristóbal, Paul Taggart, Paulina Ochoa Espejo and Pierre Ostiguy (2017) The Oxford Handbook of Populism (Oxford: OUP). SEE SIDEBAR


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Kazin, Michael (2017) The Populist Persuasion: An American History (Ithaca and London: Cornell UP), first published 1995. SEE SIDEBAR


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Mény,Yves and Yves Surel (eds.) (2002) Democracies and the Populist Challenge (New York: Palgrave). SEE SIDEBAR


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Moffitt, Benjamin (2016) The Global Rise of Populism (Stamford, CA: Stanford University Press). SEE SIDEBAR


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Müller, Jan-Werner (2016) What is Populism? (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press). SEE SIDEBAR


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Stavrakakis, Yannis and Giorgos Katsambekis (2014) ‘Left-wing Populism in the European Periphery: the case of SYRIZA’ Journal of Political Ideologies, 19(2), pp.119-142.


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2. The History of Populism as a Modern Phenomenon

Week 3

Seminar: The History of Populism as a Modern Phenomenon

Orienting Questions

  • Identify conditions that may possibly lead to the emergence of populist movements and leaders.
  • Identify two 19th-century populist movements (Russian, American). Explain why they are considered populist. How are they similar/different from contemporary western populist movements?
  • Identify at least two left-wing European and two left-wing Latin American populist leaders.
  • Can you identify possible causes for the recent right-wing populist surge in Europe?

Essential Reading

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Finchelstein, Federico (2017) Introduction in From Fascism to Populism in History (Oakland, CA: University of California Press). SEE SIDEBAR


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Judis, John (2016) Chapter 1, ‘The Logic of American Populism’ in The Populist Explosion (New York: Columbia Global Reports). SEE SIDEBAR


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Camus, Jean-Yves and Nicolas Lebourg (2017) Introduction, ‘How the Right Came into Being,’ in Far-right Politics in Europe (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press). SEE SIDEBAR

Further Reading

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Rosanvallon, (2017) Chapter 12, ‘The Populist Temptation,’ in Counter-Democracy (Cambridge: CUP). SEE SIDEBAR


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Urbinati, Nadia (2019) ‘Political Theory of Populism’ Annual Review of Political Science, Vol. 22, pp.111-127


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Arato, Andrew (2013) ‘Political Theology and Populism’ Social Research, 80(1), pp.143-172


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Stanley, Jason (2018) How Fascism Works: The Politics of Us and Them (New York: Random House). SEE SIDEBAR


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Albright, Madeleine (2018) Fascism: A Warning (London: Harper Collins). SEE SIDEBAR


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Snyder, Timothy (2017) On Tyranny: Twenty Lessons from the Twentieth Century (New York: Tim Duggan Books). SEE SIDEBAR


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Müller, Jan-Werner (2014) “The People Must Be Extracted from Within the People”: Reflections on Populism Constellations, 21(4),pp. 483-493


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Lefort, Claude (1988) Democracy and Political Theory, trans. David Macey (Cambridge: Polity) pp. 79-88 SEE SIDEBAR


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Sieyès, Emanuel (1988) Chapter 1, ‘What is the Third Estate?’ in The Essential Political Writings (Cambridge: Polity Press)


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Jäger, Anton (2017) ‘The Semantic Drift: Images of populism in post-war American historiography and their relevance for (European) political science,’ Constellations, 24, pp.310-323


Mudde, Cas and Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser (2017) Populism: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: OUP), Chapters 1-3
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    1. What is Populism?

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    2. Populism around the World

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    3. Populism and Mobilization

SEE SIDEBAR

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Giuso, L., H. Herrera, M. Morelli and T. Sonno (2020) ‘Economic Insecurity and the Demand of Populism in Europe,’ online at http://www.heliosherrera.com


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Hawkins, Kirk, Madeleine Read and Teun Pauwels (1988) ‘Populism and its Causes,’ Chapter 14 in The Oxford Handbook of Populism, by Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser et al (Oxford: OUP) SEE SIDEBAR


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Bornscheir, Simon (2011) ‘Why a Right-wing Populist Party Emerged in France but not in Germany,’ European Political Science Review 4(1) pp.121-145.

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3. Elites

Week 4

Seminar: Is democracy desirable? Who are the demagogues? Who are the elites? Who rules?

Orienting Questions

  • Identify critics of democracy from Plato to the present day. What are their specific critiques of democracy? Who do you agree/disagree with and why?
  • What is Pareto’s and Schumpeter’s respective critiques of democracy?
  • Is the idea of democracy a sham?
  • What according to Schumpeter is the role of the people in a democracy?
  • What, according to Pareto, is a ‘demagogic plutocracy’?
  • How do elites, according to Pareto, keep themselves in power?
  • Do you agree with Pareto’s characterisations of elites as fox-like and lion like? Justify your answer and provide examples.
  • What does Dahl mean by the term polyarchy?
  • With whom does power lie? Justify your answer?

Essential Reading

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Pareto, Vilfredo (1935) ‘The Circulation of Elites,’ Sections 2233-2236 in The Mind and Society: The General Form of Society (Harcourt Brace).


Michels, Robert (1966) Political Parties: A Sociological Study of the Oligarchical Tendencies of Modern Democracy (New Brunswick and London: Transaction Publishers), Part Six: Chapters 1, 2 and 4
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    1. The Conservative Basis of Organization

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    2. Democracy and the Iron Law of Oligarchy

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    4. Final Considerations

Schumpeter, J.A. (2006) Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy (New York: Routledge), Chapters 21 and 22
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    21. The Classical Doctrine of Democracy

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    22. Another Theory of Democracy

SEE SIDEBAR

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Dahl, Robert (1971) Polyarchy: Participation and Opposition (New Haven: Yale University Press)


Further Reading

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Bachrach, P. and M. Baratz (1962) ‘Two Faces of Power,’ American Political Science Review 56(4) pp.947-952.

Bachrach, Peter (1969) The Theory of Democratic Elitism: A Critique (London: University of London Press).

Barber, B. (1984) Strong Democracy (Los Angeles and London: University of California Press).

Campbell, David and Morton Schoolman (2008) ‘Introduction: Pluralism Old and New’ in The New Pluralism: William Connolly and the Contemporary Global Condition (London: Duke University Press).

Connolly, W.E. (1969) ‘The Challenge of Pluralist Theory’ in The Bias of Pluralism (New York: Atherton).

Crick, B. (1982) The American Science of Politics: its origins and conditions (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press).

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Crick, B. (1954) ‘The Science of Politics in the United States,’ The Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science 20(3) pp.308-320.


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Dahl, Robert A. (1954) ‘A Critique of the Ruling Elite Model,’ The American Political Science Review 52(2) pp.463-469.

Dahl, Robert A. (1982) Dilemmas of Pluralist Democracy: Autonomy vs Control (New Haven and London: Yale University Press).

Dahl, Robert A. (1989) Democracy and its Critics (New Haven: Yale University Press), Chapters 4 and 5

Dahl, Robert A. (1989) Who Governs? Democracy and Power in an American City (New Haven: Yale University Press).

Dahl, Robert A. (1989) Modern Political Analysis (Englewood Cliff: Prentice Hall).

Dahl, Robert A. and C.E. Lindblom (1976) Politics, Economics and Welfare (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press).

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Dahl, Robert A. (1966) ‘Further Reflections on the Elitist Theory of Democracy,’ The American Political Science Review 60(2) pp.296-305.

Davies, J.K. (2015) Democracy and Classical Greece (London: Harper Press), first published 1978.

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Davis, Lane (1964) ‘The Cost of Realism: Contemporary Restatements of Democracy,’ The Western Political Quarterly 17(1) pp.37-46.

Dunn, John (1992) Democracy: the Unfinished Journey (Oxford: OUP)

Femia, Joseph (2011) Pareto and Political Theory (London and New York: Routledge)

Bobbio, Norberto (2006) Liberalism and Democracy (London: Verso)

Finley, M.I. (2018) Democracy, Ancient and Modern (Rutgers University Press)

Gasset, José Ortega (1994) The Revolt of the Masses (New York and London: W.W. Norton & Company)

Hansen, Mogens Herman (1991) The Athenian Democracy in the Age of Demosthenes (Oxford and Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers)

Held, D. (2006) Models of Democracy, Chapter 1 ‘Classical Democracy: Athens’ (Cambridge: Polity)

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Lindblom, Charles (1982) ‘The Market as Prison,’ The Journal of Politics 44(2) pp.324-336.

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Lipset, Seymour Martin (1959) ‘Some Social Requisites of Democracy: economic development and political legitimacy,’ The American Political Science Review 53(1) pp.69-105.

Lively, Jack (2007) Democracy (ECPR Classics)

Lukes, Steven (2004) Power: A Radical View (London: Red Globe Press)

Macpherson, C.B. (1979) The Life and Times of Liberal Democracy (Oxford: OUP)

McClure, Kirstie (1992) ‘On the Subject of Rights: pluralism, plurality and political identity,’ in Dimensions of Radical Democracy, by Chantal Mouffe (ed.) (London: Verso)

Mill, John Stuart (2019) Considerations on Representative Government (Dumfries & Galloway: Anodos Books), first published 1861.

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Wright Mills, C. (2000) The Power Elite (New York: OUP), first published 1956. SEE SIDEBAR

Moore, Barrington (1967) Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Lord and Peasant in the Making of the Modern World (Boston, MA: Beacon)

Plato (1967) The Republic (Oxford: Waterfield/Oxford World Classics), Chapters 1, 2, 8 and 9

Polsby, N. (1963) Community Power and Political Theory (New Haven: Yale University Press), Chapter VII.

Rousseau, Jean Jacques (1973) The Social Contract and the Discourses (London: Everyman).

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Wallach, John R. (2006) ‘Democracy in Ancient Greek Political Theory,’ Polis 23, pp.350-367.

Participatory Democracy

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Pateman, Carole (2014) Participation and Democratic Theory, Chapter 2, ‘Rousseau, John Stuart Mill and G.D.H. Cole: A Participatory Theory of Democracy’ (Cambridge: CUP).

Phillips, Anne (1995) The Politics of Presence: The Political Representation of Ethnicity, Gender and Race, Chapter One, ‘From a Politics of Ideas to a Politics of Presence’ (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

Barber, B. (1984) Strong Democracy (Los Angeles and London: University of California Press).

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Burke, Edmund (1984) Speech to the Electors of Bristol.

Constant, Benjamin (1998) Political Writings (Cambridge: CUP).

Dahl, Robert A. (1989) Democracy and its Critics (New Haven: Yale University Press).

Fung, Archon and Erik Olin Wright (eds.) (2003) Deepening Democracy (London and New York: Verso).

Held, D. (2006) Models of Democracy, Chapter 1 ‘Classical Democracy: Athens’ (Cambridge: Polity)

Macpherson, C.B. (1979) The Life and Times of Liberal Democracy (Oxford: OUP)

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Madison, James (1787) Federalist 10.

Manin, Bernard (2010) The Principles of Representative Government, especially Chapters 4 and 5 (Cambridge: CUP)

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Mansbridge, Jane (2003) ‘Rethinking Representation,’ American Political Science Review 97(4), pp.515-528

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Mill, James (1820) Essay on Government

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Mill, John Stuart (1820) Considerations on Representative Government (Cambridge: CUP)

Phillips, Anne (2013) The Democracy and Difference (Cambridge: Polity Press)

Pitkin, Hannah F. (ed.) (1969) Representation (Beresford Books)

Pitkin, Hannah F. (1972) The Concept of Representation (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press)

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Plotke, David (1997) ‘Representation is Democracy,’ Constellations 4(1) pp.19-34

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Rehfeld, Andrew (2006) ‘Towards a General Theory of Political Representation,’ Journal of Politics 68(1) pp.1-21

Saward, Michael (2003) Democratic Innovation: Deliberation, Representation and Association (London and New York: Routledge)

Saward, Michael (2010) The Representative Claim (Oxford: OUP)

Shapiro, Ian, Susan C. Stokes, Elisabeth Jean Wood and Alexander S. Kirshner et al (2010) Political Representation (Cambridge: CUP)

Urbinati, Nadia (2008) Representative Democracy: Principles and Genealogy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press)

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4. The Crisis of Liberal Parliamentary Democracy?

Week 5

Seminar: The Crisis of Liberal Parliamentary Democracy?

Orienting Questions

  • What are the core principles of liberal and democracy? Are they compatible?
  • Is liberal democracy a contradiction in terms? Justify your answer.
  • Outline the socio-political developments that contributed to liberalism becoming
    democratised and democracy becoming liberalised.
  • What is Carl Schmitt’s critique of parliamentary liberal democracy? Do you agree with
    him?
  • In the UK who is sovereign: parliament or the PM/government?
  • How did PM Boris Johnson try to override parliament?
  • Does proroguing parliament flout parliamentary sovereignty? Justify your answer.
  • Do you think there should be more parliamentary involvement in key decisions about
    Brexit and/or COVID 19? Provide examples to justify your answer.
  • Does the current right-wing populist surge undermine the principle of liberalism,
    democracy or both? Justify your answer.
  • What is ‘illiberal’ democracy? Provide examples.
  • What do you understand by the term ‘representation’?
  • Who are the people? Do ‘the people’ pre-exist as a fixed category or are they created
    through the process of representation?
  • is Michael Saward? Why is his contribution to the debates on representation
    important?

Essential Reading

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Saward, Michael (2006) ‘The Representative Claim’ Contemporary Political Theory 5 pp.297-318

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Schmitt, Carl (2000) The Crisis of Parliamentary Democracy’ (MIT)

[To be continued …]

Recommended Reading

Further Reading

Week 6 – Reading Week

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5. The Causes of Populism and the Emergence of Social Media

Week 7

Seminar: Post-truth, alternative facts and fake news.

Orienting Questions

  • Where do left-wing and right-wing interpretations for the causes of populism converge and differ?
  • Can you identify possible problems with parliamentary liberal democracy? Justify your answer.
  • What do you think has contributed to the crisis in representation?
  • What do you understand by the terms ‘legitimacy crisis’ or ‘democratic deficit’? Provide examples.
  • What is truth and doxa? What is the difference between these two notions? Provide examples.
  • Is there a relationship between politics and truth?
  • Is politics the realm of truth or doxa? Justify your answer.
  • What is a fact?
  • What do you understand by the term post-truth?
  • What role, if any, do emotions play in politics? Justify your answer and provide examples.
  • What is an ‘alternative fact’ and ‘fake news’? Provide examples.
  • What is the difference between a fact and fake news?
  • What problems do ‘alternative facts’, ‘fake news’, and post-truth generate for democratic politics?
  • What role, if any, does social media play in a post-truth society? Justify your answer.
  • What role, if any, does twitter play in spreading information and disinformation?
  • Who is Marshall McLuhan? What does he mean when he says, ‘the medium is the message’? Does this help us explain and understand the power and force of social media?
  • How does the medium through which we communicate (the technology such as Twitter) affect our relations with each other? Is the medium (Twitter) more important than the message (content)?
  • Do you think certain technologies encourage participation whilst other forms of technology hinder it? Explain your answer.
  • How do you think Twitter can be used as a source of manipulation?

Essential Reading

Castells, Manuel (2010) ‘The Rise of the Network Society,’ Volume One of The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture 2nd edition, Chapter 1 and Conclusion (Oxford: Blackwell)
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    1. The Information Technology Revolution

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    Conclusion

SEE SIDEBAR

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Arendt, Hannah (1972) ‘Lying in Politics,’ Crises of The Republic (Harcourt, Brace & Co.)


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McLuhan, Marshall (1972) ‘The Medium is the Message,’ Chapter 1 in Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man (London and New York: Routledge)

Mudde, Cas and Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser (2017) Populism: A Very Short Introduction Chapters 1, 2 and 6 (Oxford: OUP)
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    1. What is Populism?

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    2. Populism around the world

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    6. Causes and Responses

SEE SIDEBAR

Recommended Reading

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Connolly, William E. (2005) ‘The Evangelical Capitalist Resonance Machine,’ Political Theory 33(6), pp.869-889.


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Eriksson, E. Anders (1999) ‘Information Warfare: Hype or Reality?’ The Nonproliferation Review Spring/Summer 6(3), pp.57-64.


Formisano, Ronald (2012) The Tea Party (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press) Chapters 1, 6 and 7
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    1. Reading Tea Leaves

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    6. Frustration with Politics as Usual

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    7. The Tea Party and American Political Culture

SEE SIDEBAR

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Hawkins, Kirk A., Madeleine Read and Teun Pauwels (2017) ‘Populism and its Causes,’ in Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser et al The Oxford Handbook of Populism (Oxford: OUP) Chapter 14 pp.267-286. SEE SIDEBAR


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Hughes, R. (2010) ‘A Treaty for Cyberspace,’ International Affairs 86(2) pp.523-541.


Judis, John B. (2016) The Populist Explosion (New York: Columbia Global Reports) Chapters 1 and 2
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    1. The Logic of American Populism

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    2. Neoliberalism and its Enemies

SEE SIDEBAR

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Giuso, L., H. Herrera, M. Morelli and T. Sonno (2020) ‘Economic Insecurity and the Demand of Populism in Europe,’ online at http://www.heliosherrera.com


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McEvoy-Manjikian, Mary (2010) ‘From Global Village to Virtual Battlespace: The Colonizing of the Internet and the Extension of Realpolitik,’ International Studies Quarterly 54(2), pp.381-401


Further Reading

Adorno, Theodor (2000) The Psychological Technique of Martin Luther Thomas’ Radio Addresses (Stanford: Stanford University Press)


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Adorno, Theodor W. and Anson G. Rabinbach (1975) ‘Culture Industry Reconsidered,’ New German Critique 6, pp.12-19


Adorno, Theodor (1994) The Stars Down to Earth (London and New York: Routledge)


Arendt, Hannah (1976) The Origins of Totalitarianism (New York: Harcourt Brace).

Arendt, Hannah (2006) Between Past and Future (London: Penguin Classics).

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Bernstein, Jay (2017) ‘Adorno’s Uncanny Analysis of Trump’s Authoritarian Personality’ (online at http://publicseminar.org)

Charny, Israel (2005) Fascism and Democracy in the Human Mind (Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press).

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Chomsky, Noam (2016) ‘Trump in the White House: An Interview with Noam Chomsky’ in Truth Out, (online at http://www.truth-out.org).


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Connolly, William E. (2017) ‘Donald Trump and the New Fascism’ The Contemporary Condition (online).


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Freedland, Jonathan (2016) ‘Don’t call it Post-truth. There’s a simpler word: lies,’ The Guardian.


Humphry, M. and M. Umbach (2017) Authenticity: The Cultural History of a Political Concept (Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan).


Kendall, Brent (2016) ‘Trump says Judge’s Mexican Heritage Presents “Absolute Conflict”,’ The Wall Street Journal.


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Pakulski, Jan (2013) ‘Leadership Trends in Advanced Democracies’ Sociology Compass 7(5) pp.366-376.


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Paxton, Robert O. (2016) ‘Is Fascism Back?’ Project Syndicate, 7 January.


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Rensmann, Lars (2011) ‘Political Terror in the Age of Global Modernity: Adorno’s Critical Theory of Totalitarianism Revisited’ Politics, Religion and Ideology 12(1), pp.3-26.


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Swaim, Barton (2017) ‘Politics has Always been Post-truth. Trump is just honest about it.’ Washington Post, 7 January.

The Internet/Cyberpolitics

Anderson, B. (1991) Imagined Communities, 2nd edition (London: Verso).

Van de Donk, Wim, Brian Loader, Paul G. Nixon and Dieter Rucht (2004) Cyberprotest: New Media, Citizens and Social Movements (London and New York: Routledge).

Kennedy, Barbara M. and David Bell (eds.) (2000) The Cybercultures Reader (London and New York: Routledge).


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Castells, Manuel (2010) ‘The Rise of the Network Society,’ Volume One of The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture 2nd edition (Oxford: Blackwell)
SEE SIDEBAR

Everard, J. (2000) Virtual States (London and New York: Routledge).

Guisnel, Jean (1999) Cyberwars: Espionage on the Internet (Basic Books).

Jordan, Tim (1999) Cyberpower: The Culture and Politics of Cyberspace and the Internet (London and New York: Routledge).

McCaughey, Martha and Michael Ayers (eds.) (2003) Cyberactivism: Online Activism in Theory and Practice (London and New York: Routledge).

Taylor, Paul and Tim Jordan (2004) Hacktivism and Cyberwars: Rebels with a Cause? (London and New York: Routledge).

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6. Conspiracy Theories

Week 8

Seminar: Conspiracy Theories

Orienting Questions

  • What is a conspiracy theory?
  • What is the relationship between paranoia and conspiracy theories?
  • What is the link between conspiracy theories and populism?
  • What is the difference between lying in politics and conspiracy theories?
  • Who is most likely to believe in conspiracy theories, and why?
  • Are Americans more likely to believe in conspiracy theories than Europeans?
  • What insight do conspiracy theories offer us in terms of contemporary politics?

Essential Reading

Recommended Reading

Further Reading

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7. Mainstream Conceptions of Populism

Week 9

Seminar: Mainstream Definitions of Populism

Orienting Questions

  • Identify the commentators who suggest that the following i) populism as a style, ii) populism as an ideology, iii) populism as rhetoric, iv) populism as a threat to democracy, iv) populism as anti-elitist, and vi) populism is a discourse and populism is an inherent part of democracy?
  • Identify the key features, for Mudde and Kaltwasser, of populist movements?
  • What is the ‘us versus them’ relation? Provide examples.
  • Do you think the ‘us versus them’ is tool that demagogues use?
  • Are you convinced by Mudde‘s and Katlwasser’s rendition of populism? Justify your
    answer.
  • Do you find Müller’s definition of populism as anti-pluralism convincing?
  • How significant is the shift from populism-as-opposition to populism-in-power in
    Urbinati’s work? Is it right?

Essential Reading

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Müller, Jan-Werner (2016) What is Populism? (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press) Chapter 1, ‘What Populists Say’. SEE SIDEBAR


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Urbinati, Nadia (2019) Me The People (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press) Introduction, ‘What Populists Say’. SEE SIDEBAR


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Rovira Kaltwasser, Cristóbal (2012) ‘The Ambivalence of Populism: threat and corrective for democracy’ Democratization 19(2), pp.184-208


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Mudde, Cas (2004) ‘The Populist Zeitgeist’ Government and Opposition, 39(4), pp. 542-563

Recommended Reading

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Mudde, Cas (2013) ‘Three Decades of Populist Radical Right Parties in Western Europe: so what?’ European Journal of Political Research, 52(1), pp. 1-19


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Mudde, Cas and Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser (2013) ‘Exclusionary vs Inclusionary Populism: Comparing contemporary Europe and Latin America’ Government and Opposition, 48(2), pp. 147-174


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Rovira Kaltwasser, Cristóbal and Paul Taggart (2016) ‘Dealing with Populists in Government: a framework for analysis’ Democratization, 23(2), pp. 201-220


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Taggart, Paul and Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser (2016) ‘Dealing with Populists in Government: some comparative conclusions’ Democratization, 23(2), pp. 345-365

Further Reading

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Abts, Koen and Stefan Rummens (2003) ‘Populism versus Democracy,’ Political Studies, 55(2), pp.405-424.


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Aslanidis, P. (2003) ‘Is Populism an Ideology? A Refutation and a New Perspective,’ Political Studies, 64 (1-supplement, April), pp.88-104.


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Barr, R. (2009) ‘Populists, Outsiders and Anti-establishment Politics’ Party Politics, 15(1), pp.29-48.


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Canovan, M. (1999) ‘Trust the People! Populism and the Two Faces of Democracy’ Political Studies 47(XLVII) pp.2-16.


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De La Torre, Carlos (2016) ‘Populism and the Politics of the Extraordinary in Latin America’ Journal of Political Ideologies 21(2) pp.121-139.


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Jagers, Jan and Stefaan Walgrave (2006) ‘Populism as Political Communication Style: an empirical study of political parties’ discourse in Belgium’ European Journal of Political Research 46 pp.319-345.


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Finchelstein, Federico (2017) From Fascism to Populism in History (Oakland, CA: University of California Press). SEE SIDEBAR


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Jansen, Robert S. (2011) ‘Populist Mobilization: A New Theoretical Approach to Populism’ Sociological Theory 29, 2 June, pp.75-96.


Laclau, Ernesto (2018) On Populist Reason (New York: Verso), Chapters 1 and 4
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    1. Populism: Ambiguities and Paradoxes

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    4. The ‘People’ and the Discursive Production of Emptiness

SEE SIDEBAR

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Moffitt, Benjamin and Simon Tormey (2014) ‘Rethinking Populism: Politics, Mediatisation and Political Style’ Political Studies 62(2), pp.381-397.


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Schedler, Andreas (1996) ‘Anti-Political-Establishment Parties’ Party Politics 2(3), pp.291-312.


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Taggart, Paul (2000) Populism (Buckinghamshire: OUP) SEE SIDEBAR


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Taggart, Paul (2004) ‘Populism and representative politics in contemporary Europe’ Journal of Political Ideologies 9(3), pp.269-288.


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8. Populism as Democracy?

Week 10

Seminar: Power to the people: Ernesto Laclau’s logic of populism

Orienting Questions

  • What is radical democracy? What’s radical about it?
  • What do you understand by the term ‘empty space of power’?
  • Who is Claude Lefort and how does he offer an innovative conceptualisastion of
    modern democracy? Are you convinced? Justify your answer.
  • Outline the key features of Laclau’s logic of populism.
  • What, for Laclau, is a demand? How is it different from a request?
  • Do you agree with Laclau that the ‘demand’ is the basic or minimal social unit? Justify your answer.
  • What is an empty signifier? Provide some examples.
  • What role, for Laclau, do empty signifiers play in the populist struggle.
  • What do you understand by the term ‘articulation’? Explain its significance to Laclau’s notion of populism?
  • Is a leader central to the emergence of a populist movement? Explain your answer?
  • Can you have a populist movement without a leader? Provide some examples.
  • Who are the people? Do ‘the people’ pre-exist as a fixed category or are they created
    through the process of representation?

Essential Reading

Laclau, Ernesto (2018) On Populist Reason (New York: Verso), Chapters 1 and 2
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    1. Populism: Ambiguities and Paradoxes

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    2. Le Bon: Suggestion and Distorted Representations

SEE SIDEBAR

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Laclau, Ernesto (1996) ‘Why do Empty Signifiers Matter to Politics?’ Chapter 3 in Ernesto Laclau, Emancipations (London: Verso), pp.36-46.


Recommended Reading

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De la Torre, Carlos (2004) ‘The Resurgence of Radical Populism in Latin America’ Constellations 14(3), pp.384-397.


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Hawkins, Kirk A. (2009) ‘Is Chávez Populist? Measuring Populist Discourse in Comparative Perspective’ Comparative Political Studies 42(8), pp.1040-1067.


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Laclau, Ernesto (2001) ‘Democracy and the Question of Power’ Constellations 8(1), pp.3-14.


Mouffe, Chantal (2018) For a Left Populism (New York: Verso), Chapter 4 and Conclusion
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    4. The Construction of a People

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    Conclusion

SEE SIDEBAR

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Stavrakakis, Yannis and Giorgos Katsambekis (2014) ‘Left-wing Populism in the European Periphery: the case of SYRIZA’ Journal of Political Ideologies, 19(2), pp.119-142.


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Wenman, Mark Anthony (2003) ‘Laclau or Mouffe? Splitting the Difference’ Philosophy & Social Criticism 29(5), pp.581-606.


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Weyland, Kurt (2013) ‘Latin America’s Authoritarian Drift: The Threat from the Populist Left’ Journal of Democracy 24(3), pp.18-32.


Further Reading

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Arato, Andrew (2013) ‘Political Theology and Populism’ Social Research, 80(1), pp.143-172.


Deleuze, G. (2013) ‘Many Politics’ in Dialogues II, edited by Claire Parnet (London: Athlone Press).

Hardt, M. and A. Negri (2000) Empire, (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press).

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Khan, Gulshan Ara (2008) ‘Pluralisation: An Alternative to Hegemony’ British journal of Politics and International Relations, 10(2), pp.194-210.


Laclau, Ernesto (2008) ‘The Signifiers of Democracy’ in Joseph H. Carens Democracy and Possessive Individualism: the intellectual legacy of C.B. Macpherson (Toronto: Albany).

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Laclau, Ernesto (1990) ‘The Impossibility of Society’, Chapter 2 in Ernesto Laclau, New Reflections on the Revolutions of Our Time (London: Verso).


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Laclau, Ernesto (1992) ‘Universalism, Particularism and the Question of Identity,’ October, Vol.61, Summer 1992, pp.83-90.


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Laclau, Ernesto (1995) ‘The Time is Out of Joint,’ Diacritics 25(2), pp.85-96.


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Laclau, Ernesto (1996) ‘Subject of Politics, Politics of the Subject’ Chapter 4 in Ernesto Laclau, Emancipations (London: Verso), pp.36-46.


Laclau, Ernesto (1996) ‘The Death and Resurrection of the Theory of Ideology’ The Journal of Political Ideologies 1(3), pp.201-220.

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Laclau, Ernesto (1997) ‘Converging on an Open Quest’ Diacritics 27(1), pp.16-19.


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Laclau, Ernesto (2000) ‘Identity and Hegemony: the role of universality in the constitution of political logics’ in Judith Butler, Ernesto Laclau and Slavjo Žiżek, Contingency, Hegemony and Universality: Contemporary Dialogues on the Left (London: Verso).


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Laclau, Ernesto (2000) ‘Structure, History and the Political’ in Judith Butler, Ernesto Laclau and Slavjo Žiżek, Contingency, Hegemony and Universality: Contemporary Dialogues on the Left (London: Verso).


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Laclau, Ernesto (2001) Review of The Postmodern Marx by Terrell Carver, American Political Science Review 95(4), p.976.


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Laclau, Ernesto (2001) ‘Democracy and the Question of Power’ Constellations 8(1), pp.3-14.


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Laclau, Ernesto (2001) ‘Can Immanence Explain Social Struggles?’ Diacritics 31(4), pp.3-10.


Negri, A. (1991) Marx Beyond Marx: Lessons on the Grundisse, translated by H. Cleaver, M. Ryan and E. Laclau, edited by J. Fleming(Pluto Press)


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Laclau, Ernesto (2018) On Populist Reason (London: Verso) SEE SIDEBAR


Laclau, Ernesto (1979) Politics and Ideology in Marxist Theory: capitalism, fascism, populism (London: Verso)

Laclau, Ernesto and Chantal Mouffe (2001) Hegemony and Socialist Strategy: Towards a Radical Democratic Politics (London and New York: Verso), 2nd edition, Chapter 3 (difficult) and Chapter 4 (examinable)
  • PDF icon

    3. Beyond the Positivity of the Social

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    4. Hegemony and Radical Democracy

Laclau, Ernesto and Chantal Mouffe (1987) ‘Post-Marxism without Apologies New left Review, Nov/Dec, 1, 166.

Negri, A. (1999) Insurgencies; Constituent Power and the Modern State, translated by Maurizia Boscagli (Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press).

Negri, A. (2003) Time for Revolution, translated by Matteo Mandarini (New York: Continuum).

Negri, A. (2004) ‘A Conjecture for a Definition of the Concept of Democracy in the Final Spinoza,’ Subversive Spinoza: (Un)Contemporary Variations, translated by Ted Stolze, revised by Timothy S. Murphy, Edited by Timothy Murphy (Manchester: Manchester University Press), pp.28-58.

Negri, A. (2004) ‘The Return to Spinoza and the Return of Communism,’ Subversive Spinoza: (Un)Contemporary Variations, translated by Ted Stolze, revised by Timothy S. Murphy, Edited by Timothy Murphy (Manchester: Manchester University Press), pp.94-100.

Negri, A. (2004) Negri on Negri: In Conversation with Anne Dufourmantelle, translated by M.B. DeBevoise (London: Routledge).

Negri, A. (2005) ‘Paris 1986, 26 November – 10 December,’ in The Politics of Subversion: A Manifesto for the Twenty-first Century, 2nd Edition (London: Pluto Press), pp.47-60.

Negri, A. (2008) The Porcelain Workshop: for a new grammar of Politics, translated by Noura Wedell (Los Angeles: Semiotext(e).

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Negri, A. et al (1983) ‘Do You Remember Revolution?’ Chapter in Revolution Retrieved: selected writings on Marx, Keynes, Capitalist Crisis and New Social Subjects (London: Red Notes)

Panizza, Francisco (ed.) (2005) Populism and the Mirror of Democracy (London: Verso).

Riker, William H. (1988) Liberalism against Populism: a confrontation between the theory of democracy and the theory of social choice (Prospect Heights: Waveland Press).

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Stanley, Ben (2008) ‘The Thin Ideology of Populism,’ Journal of Political Ideologies 13(1), pp.95-110.


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Thoburn, Nicholas (2001) ‘Autonomous Production? On Negri’s “New Synthesis”,’ Theory, Culture and Society 18(5), pp.75-96.


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Tronti, Mario (1964) ‘Lenin in England,’ published in (1979) Working Class Autonomy and the Crisis: Italian Marxist Texts of the Theory and Practice of a Class Movement, 1964-79 (London: Red Notes), pp.1-6. Published online at https://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/it/tronti.htm


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Tronti, Mario (1964) ‘Social Capital,’ Telos 1973(17), pp.98-121. Published online at http://zerowork.org/TrontiSocialCapital.htm


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9. Identification: leaders, followers and masses

Week 11

Seminar: Love, Sex and Democratic Leadership

Orienting Questions

  • Who is i) Gustav le Bon, ii) Walter Lippman and iii) Edward Bernays? What do they have to say about democracy? Is there any connection/association between them?
  • Who are the masses? Why are they feared?
  • Who are the people? Justify your answer.
  • What does Freud mean by the term identification?
  • What does identification have to do with the relationship between leaders and
    followers?
  • How does Laclau’s conception of identification differ from Freud’s notion of
    identification?

Essential Reading

Recommended Reading

Further Reading

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10. Propaganda and psychological warfare

Week 12

Empty signifiers and the battle for the association of words and concepts

Seminar: Propaganda: war by other means around contested concepts. Metaphor metonymy and synecdoche

Orienting Questions

  • What is propaganda? Is it inherently negative? Provide examples and justify your answer.
  • What is the difference between misinformation and disinformation?
  • Explain the significance of the internet (social media and twitter in particular) and in particular social media for the perpetuation of information/disinformation.
  • Which technologies do you think encourages participation and which forms of
    technology do you think hinder participation?
  • How do you think twitter can be used a source of manipulation?
  • What is a metaphor, metonymy and synecdoche and what does it have to do with
    politics? Provide examples.
  • What is digital campaigning?
  • What is Cambridge Analytica? Did they have any impact on the 2016 US Presidential
    Election? Justify your answer.
  • What is an empty signifier? Why is important to politics?

Essential Reading

Recommended Reading

Further Reading

 



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Coursework

Assessed Essay Titles

3,000 words, due 12 January 2021, worth 80% of module mark

All essays must engage with at least two actual populist movements (past or present).

  1. Assess Mudde’s and Kaltwasser’s and Laclau’s respective conceptions of populism.
  2. Evaluate the claim that populism is a ‘thin veiled ideology.’
  3. To what extent, if any, are elitism and populism in an antagonist relationship with each other?
  4. To what extent, if any, is the anti-elitist mantra of some populist leaders another form of elitism in disguise? Discuss with reference to Pareto’s ‘circulation of elites.’
  5. Of the thinkers, you have studied during the module, whose analysis of populism and/or democracy seems the most compelling – and why?
  6. Evaluate Müller’s definition of populism as anti-pluralist.

If you would prefer to formulate your own question, then you will need to do so in consultation with us before 1st of December 2020. The questions listed below are there to help you formulate your own question.

  1. Is representative government democratic? Answer with reference to populism.
  2. Are liberalism and democracy compatible? Answer with reference to populism.
  3. Is populism a danger to democracy?
  4. In what way, if any, has the process of identification contributed to Donald Trump’s success as President of the United States?
  5. Evaluate Robert Dahl’s and Theodore Adorno’s respective conceptions of democracy in relation to populism.
  6. Explore the relationship between fascism and the culture industry in the work of Adorno and relate this to modern-day European populist movements.
  7. Examine and assess the relationship between fascism, populism and democracy?
  8. Assess the strengths and weaknesses of Laclau’s notion of empty signifiers and Bernays’ emphasis on symbols and signs.
  9. Evaluate the similarities and differences between Laclau’s notion of hegemony and his logic of populism.
  10. What, if anything, does Laclau’s logic of populism add to Eduard Bernays’s work on mass psychology?

Articles for Essay

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Albertazzi, Daniele and Duncan McDonnell (2020) ‘Introduction: The Sceptre and the Spectre,’ Chapter 1, pp.1-11 in Twenty-First Century Populism: The Spectre of Western European Democracy (New York: Palgrave Macmillan). SEE SIDEBAR

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Ambedkar, S. Nagendra (1992) ‘Political Élites: Theoretical Perspectives,’ Indian Journal of Political Science 53(2) pp.253-276.

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Aytaç, S. Erdem, Ali Çarkoğlu and Ezgi Elçi (2020) ‘Partisanship, elite messages, and support for populism in power’ European Political Science Review First View, pp.1-17.

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Bill, Stanley (2020) ‘Counter-Elite Populism and Civil Society in Poland: PiS’s Strategies of Elite Replacement’ East European Politics and Societies and Culture 20(10), pp.1-23.

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Bredin, Hugh (1984) ‘Sign and Value in Saussure’ Philosophy 59(227), pp.67-77.

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Canovan, Margaret (2004) ‘Populism for political theorists?’ Journal of Political Ideologies 9(3), pp.241-252.

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Conley, Richard S. (2020) Donald Trump and American Populism (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press). SEE SIDEBAR

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Gallina, Nicole (2014) ‘Select Political Elite Behaviour in Eastern Central Europe: Provoking Populism and Nationalism?’ in Democracy, State and Society by Magdalena Góra and Katarzyna Zielińska (eds.) (Jagiellonian University Press).

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Hawkins, Kirk A. (2009) ‘Is Chávez Populist? Measuring Populist Discourse in Comparative Perspective’ Comparative Political Studies 42(8), pp.1040-1067.

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Iakhnis, Evgeniia, Brian Rathbun, Jason Reifler and Thomas J. Scotto (2018) ‘Populist referendum: Was ‘Brexit’ an expression of nativist and anti-elitist sentiment?’ Research and Politics April-June, pp.1-7.

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Ionescu, Ghita and Ernest Gellner (1969) Populism: Its Meaning and National Characteristics (Letchworth: Garden City Press) .

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Kolegar, Ferdinand (1967) ‘The Elite and the Ruling Class: Pareto and Mosca Re-Examined,’ The Review of Politics 29(3), pp.354-369.

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McCormick, John P. (2001) ‘Machiavellian Democracy: Controlling Elites with Ferocious Populism’ The American Political Science Review 95(2), pp.297-313.

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March, Luke (2017) ‘Left and right populism compared: The British case’ The British Journal of Politics and International Relations 19(2), pp.282-303.

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Mudde, Cas (2004) ‘The Populist Zeitgeist’ Government and Opposition, 39(4), pp. 542-563

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Mudde, Cas (2007) Populist Radical Right Parties in Europe (Cambridge: CUP) SEE SIDEBAR

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Norris, Pippa and Ronald Inglehart (2019) ‘The Authoritarian-Populist Challenge,’ Chapter 13 in Cultural Backlash: Trump, Brexit and Authoritarian Populism (Cambridge: CUP). SEE SIDEBAR

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Oliver, J. Eric and Wendy M. Rahn (2016) ‘Rise of the “Trumpenvolk”: Populism in the 2016 Election,’ The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science Vol.667, pp. 189-206.

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Rooduijn, Matthijs, Sarah de Lange and Wouter van der Brug (2014) ‘A populist Zeitgeist? Programmatic contagion by populist parties
in Western Europe’ Party Politics 20(4), pp.563–575.

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Schoor, Carola (2017) ‘In the theater of political style: Touches of populism, pluralism and elitism in speeches of politicians’ Discourse & Society 28(6), pp.657-676.

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Sharma, L.N. (1977) ‘The Theories of Élites: Impact and Relevance,’ Indian Journal of Political Science 38(1), pp.64-81.

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Stanley, Ben (2008) ‘The Thin Ideology of Populism,’ Journal of Political Ideologies 13(1), pp.95-110.

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Topaloff, Liubomir (2017) ‘The Rise of Referendums: Elite Strategy or Populist Weapon?’ Journal of Democracy 28(3), pp.127-140.

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Zuckerman, Alan (1977) ‘The Concept “Political Elite”: Lessons from Mosca and Pareto’ The Journal of Politics 39(2), pp.324-344.


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Bale, Tim, Aron Cheung, Philip Cowley, Anand Menon and Alan Wager (2020) ‘Mind the Values Gap: The social and economic values of MPs, party members and voters,’ UK in a Changing Europe. Online at https://ukandeu.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/Mind-the-values-gap.pdf

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Dotto, Carlotta (2019) ‘Thousands of misleading Conservative ads side-step scrutiny thanks to Facebook policy’. Online at https://firstdraftnews.org

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Panjwani, Abbas (2019) ‘The facts behind Labour and Conservative Facebook ads in this election’. Online at https://fullfact.org/election-2019/ads/

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Bradley, Jane, Selam Gebrekidan and Allison McCann (2020) ‘Waste, Negligence and Cronyism: Inside Britain’s Pandemic Spending,’ New York Times, 17 December. Online at https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/12/17/world/europe/britain-covid-contracts.html?referringSource=articleShare

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