Global Security

University of Nottingham (2018)

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Course Handbook


1. Defining Security

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Lecture 1 Presentation

Discussion Questions
  • What is security?
  • What are the main sources of insecurity today?
  • Who are the key security actors?
  • Is there a need for critical security studies?
  • How and why has war changed over time?

Reading

Required Reading

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Baldwin, David (1997) ‘The Concept of Security’, Review of International Studies, Vol.23, No.1, pp.5-26

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Gat, Azar (2011) ‘The Changing Character of War,’ Chapter 1 in The Changing Character of War, by Hew Strachan and Sybille Scheipers (editors), pp.27-47

Further Reading

Benbow, Tim (2004) The Magic Bullet? Understanding the Revolution in Military Affairs (London: Brassey’s)

Black, Jeremy (2014) Warfare in the Western World, 1882-1975 (Oxford: Routledge)

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Buzan, Barry and Lene Hansen (eds) (2009) The Evolution of International Security Studies (Cambridge: CUP) SEE SIDEBAR

Freedman, Lawrence (1994) War (Oxford: OUP)

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Freedman, Lawrence (2003) ‘War,’ Foreign Policy, No.137, pp.16,18,20,22 & 24

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Guterres, Antonio (2017) Remarks of UN Secretary General to the Munich Security Conference

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Kaldor, Mary (2012) New and Old Wars: Organised Violence in a Global Era, 3rd edition (Stanford: SUP)

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Paris, Roland (2001) ‘Human Security: Paradigm Shift or Hot Air?’, International Security, Vol.26, No.2, pp.87-102

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Townshend, Charles (ed.)(2000) The Oxford History of Modern War (Oxford: OUP) SEE SIDEBAR

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Walt, Stephen M. (1991) ‘The Renaissance of Security Studies’, International Studies Quarterly, Vol.35, No.2, pp.211-239

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Western, Jon (2016) ‘What is Global in Global Security Studies?’, Journal of Global Security Studies, Vol.1, No.1, pp.99-101

Extra Reading

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Williams, Paul (2012) ‘Security Studies: An Introduction’, in Paul D. Williams, Security Studies: An Introduction (Routledge)

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2. Strategic Thought

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Lecture 2 Presentation

Discussion Questions
  • What is strategy?
  • Why is strategy difficult?
  • Are there some universal truths about war and strategy?
  • Are Clausewitz and Sun Tzu’s works still relevant today?
  • What went wrong with strategy in Afghanistan and Iraq?

Reading

Required Reading

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Mahnken, Thomas (2016) ‘Strategic Theory’, Chapter 3 in Baylis et al, Strategy in the Contemporary World, (Oxford: OUP), pp.52-66

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Strachan, Hew (2005) ‘The Lost Meaning of Strategy,’ Survival, Vol.47, No.3, pp.33-54

Further reading

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Bassford, Christopher (1994) ‘John Keegan and the grand tradition of trashing Clausewitz: a polemic,’ War in History, Vol.1, No.3, pp.319-336

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Beyerchen, Alan (1992) ‘Clausewitz, Nonlinearity and the Unpredictability of War,’ International Security, Vol.17, No.3, pp.59-90

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Clausewitz, Carl Von, On War,  edited and translated by Michael Howard and Peter Paret (Princeton: PUP)

Echevarria, Antulio (2007) Clausewitz and Contemporary War (Oxford: OUP)

Freedman, Lawrence (ed.) (1994) War (Oxford: OUP)

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Freedman, Lawrence (2003) ‘War,’ Foreign Policy, No.137, pp.16,18,20,22 & 24

Gray, Colin S. (1999) Modern Strategy, Chapters 1 and 2 (Oxford: OUP)

Handel, Michael (2000) Masters of War (London: Routledge, 3rd edition)

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Peoples, Columba (2016) ‘Strategic Studies and its Critics,’ Chapter 18 in Baylis et al, Strategy in the Contemporary World, (Oxford: OUP)

Smith, Rupert (2006) The Utility of Force: The Art of War in the Modern World, (London: Penguin)

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Sun Tzu, Art of War (London: Penguin Classics, 2009)

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Walt, Stephen M. (1987) ‘The Search for a Science of Strategy,’ International Security, Vol.12, No.1, pp.140-165

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3. Theories of Security

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Lecture 3 Presentation

Discussion Questions
  • Is the liberal or realist tradition a better guide to global security?
  • To what extent do states seek to maximise security?
  • Why are democracies less likely to go to war with one another?
  • Is conflict between China and America inevitable?
  • What is the balance of power?

Reading

Required Reading

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Ikenberry, G. John (2009) ‘Liberal Internationalism 3.0: America and the Dilemmas of Liberal World Order’, Perspectives on Politics, Vol.7, No.1, pp.71-87

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Waltz, Kenneth (2000) ‘Structural Realism after the Cold War,’ International Security, Vol.25, No.1, pp.5-41, especially pp.27-28

Further reading

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Brzezinski, Zbigniew and John J. Mearsheimer (2005) ‘Clash of the Titans: Make Money, Not War,’ Foreign Policy, No.146, pp.46-47

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Doyle, Michael (1983) ‘Kant, Liberal Legacies and Foreign Affairs,’ Philosophy and Public Affairs, Vol.12, No.3, pp.205-235

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Doyle, Michael (1983) ‘Kant, Liberal Legacies and Foreign Affairs, Part Two,’ Philosophy and Public Affairs, Vol.12, No.4, pp.323-353

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Friedberg, Aaron (2005) ‘The Future of US-China Relations: Is Conflict Inevitable?’, International Security, Vol.30, No.2, pp.7-45

Mearsheimer, John (2001) The Tragedy of Great Power Politics (New York: W.W. Norton).  Only the following chapters are available online:
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    1. Introduction

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    2. Anarchy and the Struggle for Power

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    4. The Primacy of Land Power

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    6. Great Powers in Action

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    9. The Causes of Great Power War

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    10. Great Power Politics in the Twenty-First Century

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    Notes

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Montgomery, Evan Braden (2014) ‘Contested Primacy in the Western Pacific: China’s Rise and the Future of US Power Projection,’ International Security, Vol.38, No.4, pp.115-49

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Nexon, Daniel (2009) ‘The Balance of Power in the Balance,’ World Politics, Vol.61, No.2, pp.330-359

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Parent, Joseph and Sebastian Rosato (2015) ‘Balancing in Neorealism,’ International Security, Vol.40, No.2, pp.51-86

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Rosato, Sebastian (2003) ‘The Flawed Logic of Democratic Peace Theory,’ The American Political Science Review, Vol.97, No.4, pp.585-602

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Schweller, Randall (2004) ‘Unanswered Threats: A Neoclassical Realist Theory of Underbalancing,’ International Security, Vol.29, No.2, pp.159-201

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4. Strategic Culture

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Lecture 4 Presentation

Discussion Questions
  • What is strategic culture?
  • Why is the study of strategic culture important (or isn’t it)?
  • What are the main causes/factors influencing a country’s strategic culture?
  • Can a country’s strategic culture change?
  • Does each culture have its own way of fighting wars?

Reading

Required Reading

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Lantis, Jeffrey and Darryl Howlett, ‘Strategic Culture’ in Baylis, Chapter 5 of Baylis, Wirtz & Gray, Strategy in the Contemporary World (Oxford: OUP) pp.84-10

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Johnston, Alastair (1995) ‘Thinking About Strategic Culture,’ International Security, Vol.19, No.4, pp.32-64

Further reading

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Cornish, Paul and Geoffrey Edwards (2005) ‘The Strategic Culture of the European Union,’  International Affairs, Vol.81, No.4, pp.801-820

Echevarria , Antulio (2011) ‘American Strategic Culture: Problems and Prospects,’ in Hew Strachan and S. Scheipers (eds.) The Changing Character of War (Oxford: OUP)

Gray, Colin (1999) Modern Strategy (Oxford: OUP)

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Hyde-Price, Adrian (2004) ‘European Security, Strategic Culture and the Use of Force,’ European Security, Vol.14, No.4, pp.323-343

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Katzenstein, Peter (ed.) (2006) The Culture of National Security: Norms and Identity in World Politics (New York: Columbia University Press) (Copy in the study) Chapter 1 – Introduction – Alternative Perspectives on National Security

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Klein, Bradley (1988) ‘Hegemony and Strategic Culture: American power Projection and Alliance Defence Politics,’ Review of International Studies, Vol.14, No.2, pp.133-148

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Lantis, Jeffrey (2002) ‘Strategic Culture and National Security Policy,’ International Studies Review, Vol.4, No.3, pp.87-113

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Rosen, Stephen (1995) ‘Military Effectiveness: Why Society Matters,’ International Security, Vol.19, No.4, pp.5-31

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Rynning, Sten (2003) ‘The European Union: Towards a Strategic Culture?’, Security Dialogue, Vol.34, No.4, pp.479-496

Further Reading

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Adamsky, D. (2018) ‘From Moscow with coercion: Russian deterrence theory and strategic culture,’ Journal of Strategic Studies, Vol.41, Nos. 1-2, pp.33-60

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Echevarria, Antulio (2013) ‘Strategic Culture: More Problems than Prospects’, Infinity Journal, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 4-7

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Eitelhuber, Norbert (2009) ‘The Russian Bear: Russian Strategic Culture and What it Implies for the West,’ Connections, Vol.9, No.1, pp.1-28

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Gilboy, G., & Heginbotham, E. (2012) ‘Strategic Culture’ in Chinese and Indian Strategic Behavior: Growing Power and Alarm (Cambridge: CUP), pp. 25-39 SEE SIDEBAR

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Greathouse, Craig (2010) ‘Examining the Role and Methodology of Strategic Culture,’ Risk, Hazards & Crisis in Public Policy, Vol.1, No.1, pp.55-83

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Haglund, David (2004) ‘What Good is Strategic Culture? A Modest Defence of an Immodest Concept,’ International Journal, Vol.59, No.3, pp.479-502

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Johnson, Jeannie, Kerry Kartchner & Jeffrey Larsen (2009) Strategic Culture and Weapons of Mass Destruction (New York: Palgrave Macmillan) SEE SIDEBAR

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Lock, Edward (2010) ‘Refining Strategic Culture: Return of the Second Generation,’ Review of International Studies, Vol.36, No.3, pp.685-708

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Mahnken, Thomas (2006) United States Strategic Culture, A Report

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Moore, Russell (1998) Strategic Culture – How it Affects ‘Outputs’

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Ollapally, Deepa (2001) ‘Mixed Motives in India’s Search for Nuclear Status’, Asian Survey, Vol.41, No.6, pp.925-942

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Snyder, Jack (1977) The Soviet Strategic Culture: Implications for Limited Nuclear Operations, RAND Report R2154 , September 1977

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Stratford, James (2005) ‘Strategic Culture and the North Korean Nuclear Crisis: Conceptual Challenges and Policy Opportunities,’ Security Challenges, Vol.1, No.1, pp.123-133

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Poore, Stuart (2001) ‘What is the Context?  A reply to the Gray-Johnston debate on strategic culture,’ Review of International Studies, Vol.29,pp. 279–284

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Zaman, Rashed (2009) ‘Strategic Culture: A “Cultural” Understanding of War,’ Comparative Strategy, Vol.28, No.1, pp.68-88

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5. Nuclear Proliferation

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Lecture 5 Presentation

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See also the Nuclear Weapons page

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See also The Nuclear Archive pages at RobertMcNamara.org

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See also The Nuclear Bookshelf at RobertMcNamara.org

Discussion Questions
  • Why do states seek nuclear weapons?
  • To what extent is it possible to stop nuclear proliferation?
  • Will there be fewer nuclear states in the future?
  • Should we be worried about nuclear terrorism?
  • Will the nuclear peace endure for another seven decades?

Reading

Required Reading

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Sagan, Scott D. (1996-1997) ‘Why Do States Build Nuclear Weapons? Three Models in Search of a Bomb,’ International Security, Vol.21, No.3, pp.54-86

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Lieber, Keir and Daryl G. Press (2013) ‘Why States Won’t Give Nuclear Weapons to Terrorists,’ International Security, Vol.38, No.1, pp.80-104

Further reading

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Carver, Michael (1986) ‘Conventional Warfare in the Nuclear Age,’ Chapter 26 in Peter Paret (ed.) Makers of Modern Strategy: From Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age (New Jersey: Princeton University Press) SEE SIDEBAR

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Gavin, Francis J. (2015) ‘Strategies of Inhibition: US Grand Strategy, the Nuclear Revolution and Nonproliferation,’ International Security, Vol.40, No.1, pp.9-46

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Kemp, R. Scott (2014) ‘The Nonproliferation Emperor has No Clothes: The Gas Centrifuge, Supply-side Controls and the Future of Nuclear Proliferation,’  International Security, Vol.38, No.4, pp.39-78

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Kroenig, Matthew (2009) ‘Exporting the Bomb – why states provide sensitive nuclear assistance,’ American Political Science Review, Vol.103, No.1, pp.113-133

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Hymans, Jacques (2006) ‘Theories of Nuclear Proliferation: the State of the Field,’ Nonproliferation Review, Vol.13, No.3, pp.455-465

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Miller, Nicholas L. (2014) ‘The Secret Success of Nonproliferation Sanctions,’ International Organization, Vol.68, No.4, pp.913-944

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Monteiro, Nuno P. and Alexandre Debs (2014) ‘The Strategic Logic of Nuclear Proliferation,’ International Security, Vol.39, No.2, pp.7-51

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Tannenwald, Nina (1999) ‘The Nuclear Taboo: The United States and the Normative Basis of Nuclear Non-Use,’ International Organization, Vol.53, No.3, pp.433-468

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Tannenwald, Nina (2007) The Nuclear Taboo: The United States and the Non-Use of Nuclear Weapons Since 1945 (Cambridge: CUP) SEE SIDEBAR

Waltz, Kenneth and Scott Sagan (2012) The Spread of Nuclear Weapons: An Enduring Debate (London: W. W. Norton) (Copy in the study)

Further Reading

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Basrur, Rajesh (2001) ‘Nuclear Weapons and Indian Strategic Culture,’ Journal of Peace Research, Vol.38, No.2, pp.181-198

Campbell et al (2005) The Nuclear Tipping Point: Why States Reconsider Their Nuclear Choices (Brookings Institution Press):
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    2. Reconsidering a Nuclear Future: Why states might Cross Over  to the Other Side

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    3. Will the Abstainers Reconsider? Focusing on Individual Cases

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    6. Saudi Arabia: The Calculations of Uncertainty

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    8. Germany: The Model Case – A Historical Imperative

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    9. Japan: Thinking the Unthinkable

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Epstein, William (1997) ‘Why States Go, and Don’t Go, Nuclear,’ The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol.430, pp.16-28

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J.F.(1965) Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons: to be or not to be?’, Worldview, Vol.8, No.11, pp.1-2

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Khan, Feroz (2006) ‘Nuclear Proliferation Motivations: Lessons from Pakistan,’ Nonproliferation Review, Vol.13, No.33, pp.501-517

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Maerli & Lodgaard(2007) Nuclear Proliferation and International Security (Routledge) SEE SIDEBAR

Paul, T.V. (2000) Power Versus Prudence: Why States Forgo Nuclear Weapons (McGill-Queen’s University Press) (Copy in the study)

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6. The Conventional Conflict Spectrum

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Lecture 6 Presentation

Discussion Questions
  • Why do states invest huge resources in conventional military capabilities?
  • To what purpose do they put military forces?
  • What is the difference between peacemaking and peacekeeping?
  • What is the so-called ‘Responsibility to Protect’ Doctrine?

Reading

Required Reading

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Howard, Michael (2009) ‘Military Power and International Order,’ International Affairs, Vol.85, No.1, pp.145-155

Further reading

Bellamy, Alex et al (2004) Understanding Peacekeeping (Cambridge: Polity Press)

Biddle, Stephen (2007) ‘Iraq, Afghanistan and American Military Transformation,’ in Baylis et alStrategy in the Contemporary World, in 2nd and 3rd editions only, (Oxford: OUP)

Duffield, Mark (2001) Global Governance and the New Wars (London: Zed Books)

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Freedman, Lawrence (2014) ‘Ukraine and the Art of Limited War,’ Survival, Vol.56, No.6, pp.7-38

Greitens, Sheena (2013) ‘Humanitarian Intervention and Peace Operations,’ in Baylis, Wirtz & Gray, Strategy in the Contemporary World (Oxford: OUP)

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Kaldor, Mary (2012) New and Old Wars: Organised Violence in a Global Era, 3rd edition (Stanford: SUP)

Mack, Andrew (2008) ‘Why Big Nations Lose Small Wars: the Politics of Asymmetric Conflict,’ chapter in Maken & Maiolo (eds.) Strategic Studies: A Reader (London: Routledge) Chapter not available but original article is:

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Mack, A. (1975) ‘Why Big Nations Lose Small Wars: The Politics of Asymmetric Conflict,’ World Politics, Vol.27, No.2, pp.175-200

Strachan, Hew and Sibylle Scheipers (eds.) (2011) The Changing Character of War (Oxford: OUP)

Thornton, Rod (2006) Asymmetric Warfare: Threat and Response in the 21st Century (Cambridge: Polity Press)

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7. Conflict: A Practitioner’s Experience

Lecture by Major General (Retired) Tim Cross on the full spectrum of conflict

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Witness Statement by Maj.Gen. Tim Cross to The Iraq Inquiry

Discussion Questions
  • How are different types of conflict initiated and managed in practice?
  • To what extent is theory relevant in practice?
  • Are lessons learned and how do defence and security institutions adapt to change?


8. Terrorism

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Lecture 8 Presentation

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See also Terrorism and Counter-terrorism on the International Security page

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See also The Global War on Terror on the Problems in Global Politics page

Discussion Questions
  • What is terrorism?
  • How does terrorism evolve: past and present, political and religious?
  • How did Al Qaeda and ISIS/IS evolve?
  • What are some of the drivers of terrorism?
  • What does counterterrorism involve?

Reading

Required Reading

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Richardson, Louise (2007) What Terrorists Want: Understanding the Enemy, Containing the Threat (Random House) SEE SIDEBAR

Gray, John (2015) Al Qaeda and What it Means to be Modern, (Vol.2) (Faber & Faber)

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Gray, John (2003) Al Qaeda and What it Means to be Modern (Faber & Faber)

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Rapoport, D.C. (1983) ‘Fear and Trembling: Terrorism in Three Religious Traditions,’ American Political Science Review, Vol.78, No.3, pp.658-677

Ashraf, Afzal (2012) ‘Al Qaeda and the London Olympics,’ Studies on the Olympic and Paralympic Games, Vol.1, No.41, pp.32-48

Further reading

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Rees, Wyn and Richard J. Aldrich, ‘Contending Cultures of Counterterrorism: Transatlantic Divergence or Convergence?’ International Affairs, Vol.81, No.5, pp.905-923

Ashraf, Afzal & J. Shaw (2016) ‘A Military Response to the Syrian Crisis,’ Evidence to the House of Commons Defence Select Committee

Rees (2011) ‘EU-US Cooperation on Counterterrorism and the Internationalisation of Law Enforcement,’ chapter 14 in Cremona, Marise et alThe External Dimension of the European Union’s Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (New York: Peter Lang)

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Byman, Daniel (2007) ‘US Counterterrorism Options: A Taxonomy,’ Survival, Vol.49, No.3, pp.121-150

Kegley, C.W. (ed.) (2003) ‘The New Face of Combat: Terrorism and Irregular Warfare in the 21st Century,’ Chapter 2 in Kegley, The New Global Terrorism: Characteristics, Causes, Controls (Pearson College Division)

Wilkinson P (2011) Terrorism Versus Democracy: the Liberal State Response (Taylor & Francis)

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9. Just War and the Ethics of International Security

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Lecture 9 Presentation

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See also The Ethics of War on the War Studies page

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See also Justifying War on the War Studies page

Discussion Questions
  • What is the ‘Just War’ tradition?
  • Is there a place for morality in warfare?
  • Does the West’s search for ‘riskless warfare’ raise new ethical issues?
  • Has ‘irregular warfare’ and the Global War on Terror confronted the West with new moral dilemmas?
  • In the face of terrorism, is torture sometimes the lesser evil?

Reading

Required Reading

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Morris, J. (2016) ‘Law, Politics and the Use of Force,’ Chapter 6 in Baylis, Wirtz & Gray, Strategy in the Contemporary World (Oxford: OUP) pp.102-118

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Burke, A. (2004) ‘Just War or Ethical Peace? Moral Discourses of Strategic Violence After 9/11’, International Affairs, Vol.80, No. 2, pp.329-353

Further reading

Bellamy, A (2006) Just Wars: From Cicero to Iraq (Cambridge: Polity Press)

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Brunstetter, D. and M. Braun (2011) ‘The Implication of Drones and the Just War Tradition,’ Ethics & International Affairs, Vol.25, No.3, pp.337-358

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Crawford, Neta ‘Just War Theory and the US Counterterror War,’ Perspectives on Politics, Vol.1, No.1, pp.5-25

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Giannoulopoulos, D. (2006) ‘Torture, Evidence and Criminal Procedure in the Age of Terrorism: A Barbarization of the Criminal Justice System?’ Chapter 13 in Kassimeris, George (ed.) Warrior’s Dishonour: Barbarity, Morality and Torture in Modern Warfare (Abingdon: Ashgate), pp.234-251

Grayling, A.C (2007) Among the Dead Cities: Is the Targeting of Civilians in War Ever Justified?  (London: Bloomsbury).
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    Front matter (Contents and Maps)

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    1. Introduction: Was it a Crime?

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    2. The Bomber War

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    3. The Experience of the Bombed

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    4. The Mind of the Bomber

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    5. Voices of Conscience

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    6. The Case Against the Bombing

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    7. The Defence of Area Bombing

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    8. Judgement

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    Back matter

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Gross, M. (2010) Moral Dilemmas of Modern War: Torture, Assassination and Blackmail in an Age of Asymmetric Conflict (Cambridge: CUP) SEE SIDEBAR

Grosscup, B. (2006) Strategic Terror: The Politics and Ethics of Aerial Bombardment (London: Zed Books)

Kennedy, D. (2006) Of War and Law (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press)

Ramsey, P. (2002) The Just War: Force and Political Responsibility (Oxford: Rowan & Littlefield):
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    Front matter (Introduction and Contents)

  • Part I – Political Ethics
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    1. The Uses of Power

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    2. The Ethics of Intervention

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    3. What Americans Ordinarily Think About Justice in War

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    4. Pacem in Terris

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    5. Selective Conscientious Objection

  • Part II – The Morality of War
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    6. Justice in War

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    7. The Case for Making “Just War” Possible

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    8. The Hatfields and the Coys

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    9. Turn Toward Just War

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    10. When “Just” War Is Not Justified

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    11. The Limits of Nuclear War

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    12. Can a Pacifist Tell a Just War?

  • Part III – The Morality of Deterrence
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    13. A Brief Preface to the Morality of Deterrence

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    14. More Unsolicited Advice to Vatican Council II

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    15. Again, the Justice of Deterrence

  • Part IV – The Second Vatican Council and a Just War Theory of Statecraft
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    16. The Vatican Council on Modern War

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    17. Robert W. Tucker’s Bellum Contra Bellum Justum

  • Part V – Vietnam and Insurgency Warfare
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    18. How Shall Counter-Insurgency War Be Conducted Justly?

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    19. Incapacitating Gases

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    20. Farewell to Christian Realism

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    21. Vietnam: Dissent from Dissent

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    22. Is Vietnam a Just War?

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    23. The Miami “Appeal to the Churches Concerning Vietnam”

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    24. Counting the Costs

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    Index

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Rengger, N. (2002) ‘On the Just War Tradition in the 21st Century,’ International Affairs, Vol.78, No.2, pp.353-363

Slim, H. (2008) Killing Civilians: Method, Madness and Morality in War (New York: Columbia University Press)

Shue, H. (2011) ‘Target-selection Norms, Torture Norms and Growing US Permissiveness,’ Chapter in Strachan, H. & Scheipers, S. (eds.), The Changing Character of War (Oxford: OUP)

Ward, T. (2001) The Ethics of Destruction: Norms and Force in International Relations (Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press)

Walzer, Michael (1992) Just and Unjust Wars (on waitlist at archive.org)

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10. Environmental and Energy Security

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Lecture 10 Presentation

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See also the Energy Security page

Discussion Questions
  • What is environmental security?
  • What is energy security?
  • Who or what is threatened by environmental and energy security?
  • Do threats to environmental and energy security expose the inadequacies of state-centred thinking in traditional international relations?
  • How can enemy security and environmental security best be ensured?
  • How, if at all, does environmental security relate to energy security?

Reading

Required Reading

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Trombetta, Maria (2008) ‘Environmental Security and Climate Change: Analysing the Discourse,’ Cambridge Review of International Affairs, Vol.21, No.4, pp.585-602

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Baghat, Gawdat (2006) ‘Europe’s Energy Security: Challenges and Opportunities,’ International Affairs, Vol.82, No.5, pp.961-975

Further reading

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Ahrend, Rüdiger (2005) ‘Can Russia Break the Resource Curse?’ Eurasian Geography and Economics, Vol.46, No.8, pp.584-609

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Barnett, John (2003) ‘Security and Climate Change,’ Global Environmental Change, Vol.13, No.1, pp.7-17

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Hayes, Jarrod & Janelle Knox-Hayes (2014) ‘Security in Climate Change Discourse,’ Global Environmental Politics, Vol.14, No.2, pp.82-101

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Booth, Ken (1991) ‘Security and Emancipation,’ Review of International Studies, Vol.17, No.4, pp.313-326

Booth, Ken (ed.) Critical Security Studies and World Politics (London: Lynne Rienner)

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Buzan, Barry et al (1998) Security: A New Framework for Analysis (London: Lynne Rienner) (Poor quality photocopy)

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Downs, Erica (2004) ‘The Chinese Energy Security Debate,’ The China Quarterly, Vol.177, pp.21-41

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Heinrich, Andreas (2008) ‘Under the Kremlin’s Thumb: Does Increased State Control in the Russian Gas Sector Endanger European Energy Security?’, Europe-Asia Studies, Vol.60, No.9, pp.1539-1574

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Homer-Dixon, Thomas (1994) ‘Environmental Scarcities and Violent Conflict,’ International Security, Vol.19, No.1

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Kaldor, Mary et al (2007) ‘Human Security: A New Strategic Narrative for Europe,’ International Affairs, Vol.83, pp.273-288

Mutimer, David (2010) ‘Critical Security Studies: A Schismatic History,’ chapter in A. Collins (ed.) Contemporary Security Studies (Oxford: OUP)

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Paris, Roland (2001) ‘Human Security: Paradigm Shift or Hot Air?’ International Security, Vol.26, No.2, pp.87-102

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Podesta, John and Peter Ogden (2008) ‘The Security Implications of Climate Change,’ The Washington Quarterly, Vol.31, No.1, pp.115-138

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Yergin, Daniel (2006) ‘Ensuring Energy Security,’ Foreign Affairs, Vol.85, No.2, pp.69-82

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11. The Future of Security

Lecture 11 Presentation (not yet available)
Discussion Questions
  • How has the study of global security changed this century?
  • To what extent can we predict future security issues?
  • If prediction is imprecise, why bother?
  • Has there been a cyber revolution?
  • How likely is cyber war?

Reading

Required Reading

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Carpenter, Charli (2016) ‘The Future of Global Security Studies,’ Journal of Global Security Studies, Vol.1, No.1, pp.92-94

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Jervis, Robert (1991) ‘The Future of World Politics: Will it Resemble the Past?’, International Security, Vol.16, No.3, pp.39-73

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Kello, Lucas (2013) ‘The Meaning of the Cyber Revolution: Perils to Theory and Statecraft,’ International Security, Vol.38, No.2, pp.7-40

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Junio, Timothy (2013) ‘How Probable is Cyber War?  Bringing IR Theory Back into the Cyber Conflict Debate,’ Journal of Strategic Studies, Vol.36, No.1, pp.125-133

Further reading

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Burke, Anthony, Katrina Lee-Koo & Matt McDonald (2016) ‘ An Ethics of Global Security,’ Journal of Global Security Studies, Vol.1, No.1, pp.64-79

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Browning, Christopher S. & Matt McDonald (2013) ‘The Future of Critical Security Studies: Ethics and the Politics of Security,’ European Journal of International Relations, Vol.19, No.2, pp.235-255

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Lindsay, John R. (2014) ‘The Impact of China on Cybersecurity: Fiction and Friction,’ International Security, Vol.39, No.3, pp.7-47

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McGraw, Gary (2013) ‘Cyber War is Inevitable (Unless we Build Security In),’ Journal of Strategic Studies, Vol.36, No.1, pp.109-119

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Rid, Thomas (2012) ‘Cyber War Will Not Take Place,’ Journal of Strategic Studies, Vol.35, No.1, pp.5-32

Tetlock, Philip E. (1999) Expert Political Judgment: How Good is it?  How Can we Know?  (New Jersey: Princeton University Press), Chapters 1 and 8

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Walzer, Michael (2004) Arguing About War (New Haven: Yale University Press) SEE SIDEBAR

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Ward, Michael D. (2016) ‘Can We Predict Politics?  Toward What End?’, Journal of Global Security Studies, Vol.1, No.1, pp.80-91


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Essay Questions 

  1. To what extent have traditional definitions of security been impacted by terrorism in the twenty-first century?
  2. Is the spectrum of contemporary conflict interpreted, shaped or mitigated by theories of security and humanitarian sentiment?
  3. Does strategic culture drive the decision of some states to acquire nuclear weapons while making other states shun them?
  4. Based on emerging trends, how are environmental degradation and ethics likely to shape the future global security?
  5. Why do great powers sometimes respond to political threats in militarily imprudent ways?
  6. Are traditional ideas about strategy and regular military capability responsible for a lack of decisive victory in recent conflicts?

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