War Studies

University of Cambridge (2011)

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Course Outline

Lecture Notes
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    Introduction

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    Lecture 1: A First Approximation

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    Lecture 2: Philosophies

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    Lecture 3: Liberalism

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    Lecture 4: Realism

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    Lecture 5: Where is International Relations?

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    Lecture 6: When Was International Relations?

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    Lecture 7: The Causes of War

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    Lecture 8: The Ethics and Nature of War


1. The Causes of War

Overview


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Levy, Jack S. (1989) The Causes of War: A Review of Theories and Evidence, Chapter 4 in Behaviour, Society and Nuclear War, Volume 1, by Philip E. Tetlock, Jo Husbands, Robert Jervis, Paul C. Stern and Charles Tilly (editors), New York: Oxford University Press

(a) The Correlates of War

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Dessler, David (1991) Beyond Correlations: toward a causal theory of war, International Studies Quarterly, Vol.35, No.3 (Sep 1991), pp.337-355

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Diehl, Paul F. (1983) Arms Races and Escalation: a closer look, Journal of Peace Research, Vol.20, No.3 (Sep 1983), pp.205-212

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Doyle, Michael W. (1986) Liberalism and World Politics, The American Political Science Review, Vol.80, No.4 (Dec 1986), pp.1151-1169

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Fearon, James D. (1995) Rationalist Explanations for War, International Organization, Vol.49, No.3 (Summer 1995), pp.379-414

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Jervis, Robert (1993) Arms Control, Stability and Causes of War, Political Science Quarterly, Vol.108, No.2 (Summer 1993), pp.239-253

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Van der Dennen & Falger (1992) Sociobiology and Conflict: Evolutionary Perspectives on Competition, Review Article by Marc Howard Ross, Politics and the Life Sciences, Vol.11, No.1 (Feb 1992), pp.139-141

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Wallace, Michael D. (1982) Armaments and Escalation: two competing hypothesis, International Studies Quarterly, Vol.26, No.1 (Mar 1982), pp.37-56

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Waltz, Kenneth N. (1998) The Origins of War in Neorealist Theory, The Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol.18, No.4, The Origin and Prevention of Major Wars (Spring 1988), pp.615-628

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(b) Democratic Peace Theory

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Barkawi & Laffey (1999) The Imperial Peace: Democracy, Force and Globalization, European Journal of International Relations, Vol.5, No.4, pp.403-434

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Layne, Christopher (1994) Kant or Cant: the myth of the Democratic Peace, International Security, Vol.19, No.2 (Autumn 1994), pp.5-49

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MacMillan, John (2012) ‘Hollow Promises?’ Critical materialism and the contradictions of the Democratic Peace, International TheoryNo.4, No.3, pp.331-366

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Mann, Michael (1999) The Darkside of Democracy: The Modern Tradition of Ethnic and Political Cleansing, New Left Review, Vol. 235 (May-June 1999), pp. 18-45

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Mann, Michael (2005) The Dark Side of Democracy: Explaining Ethnic Cleansing, Cambridge University Press

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Mansfield & Snyder (1995) Democratisation and the Danger of War, International Security, Vol.20, No.1 (Summer 1995), pp.5-38

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Oneal & Russett (1997) The Classic Liberals Were Right: Democracy, Interdependence and Conflict, 1950-85, International Studies Quarterly, Vol.41, No.2 (Jun 1997), pp.267-293

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Oneal & Russett (1999) The Kantian Peace: the pacific benefits of democracy, interdependence and international organizations, 1885-1992, World Politics, Vol.52, No.1 (Oct 1999), pp.1-37

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Oren & Hays (1997) Democracies May Rarely Fight One Another, but Developed Socialist States Rarely Fight at All, Alternatives: Global, Local, Political, Vol.22, No.4 (Oct-Dec 1997), pp.493-521

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(c) Promoting Democratization

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See also the Democratization page

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Doyle, Michael W. (1986) Liberalism and World Politics, The American Political Science Review, Vol.80, No.4 (Dec 1986), pp.1151-1169

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Krauthammer, Charles (2004) In Defense of Democratic Realism, The National Interest, No.77 (Fall 2004), pp.15-25

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Fukuyama, Francis (2004) The Neoconservative moment (a response to Krauthammer), The National Interest, No.76 (Summer 2004), pp.57-68

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Paris, Roland (1997) Peacebuilding and the Limits of Liberal Internationalism, International Security, Vol.22, No.2 (Fall 1997), pp.54-89

Lepgold, Joseph and Miroslav Ninic, Beyond the Ivory Tower: International Relations Theory and the Issue of Relevance (New York: Columbia University Press, 2001), Chapter 5.

Ish-Shalom, Piki, Democratic Peace: a Political Biography, (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2013), Chapter 5 ‘The Civilisation of Clashes: The Neoconservative Reading of Democratic Peace’

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(d) Balancing, Polarity and Conflict

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Alker & Biersteker (1984) The Dialectics of World Order: notes for a future archeologist of international savour faire, International Studies Quarterly, Vol.28, No.2 (Jun 1984), pp.121-142

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Buzan, Jones & Little (1993) The Logic of Anarchy: Neorealism to Structural Realism

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Krauthammer, Charles (1990) The Unipolar Moment, Foreign Affairs, Vol.70, No.1 (Winter 1990-91), pp.23-33

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Layne, Christopher (1993) The Unipolar Illusion: why new great powers will rise, International Security, Vol.17, No.4 (Spring 1993), pp.5-51

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Nexon, Daniel (2009) The Balance of Power in the Balance, World Politics, Vol.61, No.2 (Apr 2009), pp.330-359

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Stokes, Eric (1969) Late Nineteenth-Century Colonial Expansion and the Attack on the Theory of Economic Imperialism: a case of mistaken identity? The Historical Journal, Vol.12, No.2 (1969), pp.285-301

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Waltz, Kenneth N. (1988) The Origins of War in Neorealist Theory, The Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol.18, No.4 (Spring 1988), pp.615-628

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Waltz, Kenneth N. (1964) The Stability of a Bipolar World, Daedalus, Vol.93, No.3 (Summer 1964), pp.881-909

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Wendt, Alexander (1992) Anarchy is What States Make of It: The social construction of power politics, International Organization, Vol.46, No.2 (Spring 1992), pp.391-425

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Wohlforth et al (2007) Testing Balance-of-Power Theory in World History, European Journal of International Relations, Vol.13, No.2 (2007), pp.155-185

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Wohlforth, William C. (1999) The Stability of a Unipolar World, International Security, Vol.24, No.1 (summer 1999), pp.5-41

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(e) The Post-1991 Debate on Unipolarity (2015 syllabus)

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Coll, Alberto R. (1992) America as the Grand Facilitator, Foreign Policy, No.87 (Summer 1992), pp.47-65

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Diamond, Larry (1992) Promoting Democracy, Foreign Policy, No.87 (Summer 1992), pp.25-46

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Hopf, Ted (1991) Polarity, the Offense-Defense Balance and War, The American Political Science Review, Vol.85, No.2 (Jun 1991), pp.475-493

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Ikenberry, Mastanduno & Wohlforth (2009) Unipolarity, State Behaviour and Systemic Consequences, World Politics, Vol.61, No.1 (Jan 2009), pp.1-27

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Kagan, Robert (1998) The Benevolent Empire, Foreign Policy, No.111 (Summer 1998), pp.24-35

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Kegley & Raymond (1992) Must We Fear a Post-Cold War Multipolar System? Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol.36, No.3 (Sep 1992), pp.573-585

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Layne & Schwarz (1993) American Hegemony: Without an enemy, Foreign Policy, No.92 (Autumn 1993), pp.5-23

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Maynes, Charles William (1998) The Perils of (And for) an Imperial America, Foreign Policy, No.111 (Summer 1998), pp.36-48

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Mearsheimer, John J. (1990) Back to the Future: Instability in Europe after the Cold War, International Security, Vol.15, No.1 (Summer 1990), pp.5-56

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Midlarsky & Hopf (1993) Polarity and International Stability, American Political Science Review, Vol.87, No.1 (Mar 1993), pp.171-180

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Saperstein, Alvin M. (1991) The “Long Peace”: Result of a bipolar competitive world? The Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol.35, No.1 (Mar 1991), pp.68-79

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2. The Ethics of War

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See also the Just War Section on the Global Security page

Core Readings

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Johnson, James Turner (2006) The Just War Idea: The State of the Question, Social Philosophy and Policy, Vol.23, No.1 (2006), pp.167-196

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Rengger, Nicholas (2002) On the Just War Tradition in the Twenty-First Century, International Affairs, Vol.78, No.2 (Apr 2002), pp.353-363

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Walzer, Michael (2002) The Triumph of Just War Theory (and the Dangers of Success), Social Research, Vol.69, No.4, International Justice, War Crimes and Terrorism: The US Record (Winter 2002), pp.925-944

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Williams, John (2010) Hedley Bull and Just War: missed opportunities and lessons to be learned, European Journal of International Relations, Vol.16, No.2 (2010), pp.179-196

Supplementary Reading

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Cook, Ethical Issues in War: an overview

Jones, Charles (2014) More Than Just War, Routledge
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    Part 1

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    Part 2

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    Part 3

Walzer, Michael (1977) Just and Unjust Wars, (4th edition, 2006) – this is the seminal work on just war theory

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3. Justifying War

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See also the Just War Section on the Global Security page

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Jones (2004) Three Parables About War, Chapter 1 in British Foreign Policy and the Anglican Church, by Timothy Blewett, Adrian Hyde-Price and Wyn Rees

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LaFeber, Walter (2009) The Rise and Fall of Colin Powell and the Powell Doctrine, Political Science Quarterly, Vol.124, No.1 (Spring 2009), pp.71-93

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Record, Jeffrey (2007) Back to the Weinberger-Powell Doctrine? Strategic Studies Quarterly, (Fall 2007), pp.79-95

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The Blair Doctrine

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Varouxakis, Georgios (1997) John Stuart Mill on Intervention and Non-Intervention, Millenium Journal of International Studies, Vol.26, No.1, pp.57-76

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Walzer, Michael (2007) ‘Mill’s “A Few Words on Non-Intervention”: A Commentary’, Chapter 14 in J.S. Mill’s Political Thought: A bicentennial reassessment, by Nadia Urbinati & Alex Zakaras (editors)

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Walzer, Michael (1995), The Politics of Rescue, Social Research, Vol.62, No.1 (Spring 1995), pp.53-66

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The Weinberger Doctrine

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Welsh, Jennifer (1994) Interventionism, Chapter 5 in Edmund Burke and International Relations: the Commonwealth of Europe and the crusade against the French Revolution, by Jennifer M. Welsh, St Martin’s Press

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4. The Nature of War

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Baudrillard, Jean (1995) The Gulf War Did Not Take Place, Indiana University Press

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Bull, Hedley (1977) War and International Order, Chapter 8 in The Anarchical Society:  a study of order in world politics, (2nd edition), Macmillan

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Der Derian, James (2009) A Virtual Theory of the Global Event, Chapter 9 in Virtuous War: mapping the military-industrial-media-entertainment network (2nd edition)

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Freedman, Lawrence (2003) War, Foreign Policy, No.137 (Jul-Aug 2003), pp.16-18, 20, 22, 24

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Grenier, John (2008) Introductory Chapter to The First Way of War: American war making on the frontier, 1607-1814, Cambridge University Press

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Ignatieff, Michael (2008) Virtual War: Kosovo and beyond, pp.161-215, Chatto & Windus

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Jones, Charles A. (2006) War in the Twenty-first Century: an institution in crisis, Chapter 8 in The Anarchical Society in a Globalised World, by Richard Little and John William (editors), Palgrave

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Kaldor, Mary (1999) Chapter 1 of New and Old Wars: organised violence in a global era

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Richani, Nazih (2014) Chapter 1 of Systems of Violence: the political economy of war and peace in Colombia

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Zulaika & Douglass (1996) Epilogue from Terror and Taboo: the follies, fables and faces of terrorism, New YorkL Routledge


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