Disasters, Politics and Society

University of Nottingham (2021)

PDF icon

Course Handbook

 

 

Disasters are defined by the United Nations as ‘a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or society involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope with using its own resources.’ The failure to successfully reconcile human behaviour with environmental threats has, over time and space, led to multiple disasters.

This module will examine the relationship between natural hazards and human society, how and why disasters happen and how the impact of disasters can be ameliorated. With reference to cases across the globe there will be a focus on how social life has mitigated, adapted and evolved in the face of environmental hazards. We will examine the social, economic and technological processes that mediate the relationship between human society and the natural world. We will examine key themes such as governance, technological innovation, urbanisation and migration, gender, culture and identity, global patterns of production and consumption, health and pandemics, race and class to understand why disasters impact on different people in different ways. Vulnerability, risk, resilience and capacity-building will be analysed in relation to national and international frameworks that seek to limit the impact of disasters and strengthen societies and improve the management of future hazards. Students will be encouraged to identify their own case studies for research.


 

Resources

Useful Websites

Journals

back-to-top

 

1. Introduction

Introduction to the Module

Seminar Questions

  • What is a disaster/hazard? Give examples.
  • What is risk and what mediates risk?

Essential Reading

PDF icon

Bankoff, Greg et al (2004) Mapping Vulnerability: Disasters Development and people (London: Earthscan) have a browse through the chapters. SEE SIDEBAR

PDF icon

Perry, Ronald W. (2018) ‘Defining Disaster: An Evolving Concept,’ in Rodríguez, Havidán, William Donner and Joseph E. Trainor (eds.) Handbook of Disaster Research (Cham, Switzerland: Springer), pp.3-22 SEE SIDEBAR

PDF icon

Statista (2019) ‘The 10 most significant natural disasters worldwide by death toll from 1980 to 2019,’ Statista’

PDF icon

Swiss Re (2014) Mind the Risk: A global ranking of cities under threat from natural disasters, Swiss Reinsurance Limited: Zurich

PDF icon

Wisner, B. and Luce, H. (1993) ‘Disaster Vulnerability: Scale: Power, and Daily Life,’ GeoJournal, 30(2), pp.127-140

Wisner, Ben et al (2012) The Routledge Handbook of Disaster Risk Reduction, especially Chapters 2, 3 and Ch.25-29 on Geophysical Hazards
  • PDF icon

    2. Introduction to Part 1

  • PDF icon

    3. Framing Disaster in the ‘Global Village’

  • Geophysical Hazards

  • PDF icon

    25. Landslide and Other Mass Movements

  • PDF icon

    26. Earthquake

  • PDF icon

    27. Tsunami

  • PDF icon

    28. Volcanic Eruption

  • PDF icon

    29. Soil Erosion and Contamination

Additional Reading

Atienza, Maria Ela et al (2019) Urban Poverty in the Wake of Environmental Disaster: Rehabilitation, Resilience and Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda) (Abindgon: Routledge)
  • PDF icon

    2. Poverty, Vulnerability and Risk

  • PDF icon

    3. The Philippines

  • PDF icon

    4. The Roles of Foreign and International Agencies

  • PDF icon

    8. Conclusion

PDF icon

Dalisay, Soledad Natalia and Mylene T De Guzman (2016) ‘Risk and culture: the case of typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines,’ Disaster Prevention and Management, 25(5), pp.701-714

PDF icon

Hardin, Garret (1968) ‘The Tragedy of the Commons’, Science, 162(3859), pp.1243-1248. Available at: https://www.oxfam.org.uk/education/resources/dealing-with-disasters

PDF icon

Gaillard, J. (2010) ‘Vulnerability, Capacity and Resilience: Perspectives for Climate Development Policy,’ Journal of International Development, 22(2), pp.218-232

Krüger, Fred et al (2015) Cultures and Disasters: Understanding Cultural Framings in Disaster Risk Reduction (Routledge)
  • PDF icon

    Intro: Exploring the links between cultures and disasters

  • PDF icon

    1. Framing Disaster in the ‘Global Village’

  • PDF icon

    2. Conversations in Catastrophe

  • PDF icon

    3. Design by Disasters

  • PDF icon

    4. Learning from History?

  • PDF icon

    5. Disasters, Climate Change and Culture

  • PDF icon

    6. Cultures and Contra-Cultures

  • PDF icon

    7. The Cultural Sense of Disasters

  • PDF icon

    8. Religion and Belief Systems

  • PDF icon

    9. The Deep Roots of Nightmares

  • PDF icon

    10. Celebrity Culture, Entertainment Values and Disaster

  • PDF icon

    11. Disaster Management Culture in Bangladesh

  • PDF icon

    12. Culture’s Role in Risk Reduction

Smith, Keith (2016) Environmental Hazards: Assessing Risk and Reducing Disaster (Routledge), Chapters 1 and 4
  • PDF icon

    1. Hazard in the Environment

  • PDF icon

    4. Risk Assessment and Management

PDF icon

Wei, Mei et al (2015) ‘Northwestern Pacific typhoon intensity controlled by changes in ocean temperatures,’ Science Advances, 1(4), pp.1-8

PDF icon

Wisner, Ben et al (1994) At Risk: Natural Hazards, People’s Vulnerability and Disasters (London and New York: Routledge) SEE SIDEBAR


back-to-top

 

2. How do we Understand Disasters?

From Act son God, to Nature, to Humanity

Seminar Questions

  • How have the human understanding of disasters shifted historically?
  • How does E. Quarantelli’s model of disasters from acts of God to acts of nature to acts of humanity generalise those historical shifts?
  • Why is the Lisbon earthquake 1755 seen as fostering modern scientific approaches in disasters?
  • Why and to what extent have approaches to disasters more pessimistic in the later decades of the twentieth century and the new millennium?

Essential Reading

PDF icon

Dynes, Russell R. (1997) ‘The Lisbon Earthquake in 1755: Contested Meanings in the First Modern Disaster,’ Disaster Research Centre, University of Delaware.

PDF icon

Pupavac, Vanessa and Mladen Pupavac (2020) Changing European Visions of Disaster and Development: Rethinking Faust’s Humanism (London: Rowan & Littlefield), Chapter 2, ‘The Disastrous Birth of Modernity in Europe,’ pp.41-46 SEE SIDEBAR

Additional Reading

PDF icon

Balstad, Roberta (2013) ‘The Lisbon Earthquake of 1755 and Superstorm Sandy: The need to understand long-term impacts,’ Weather, Climate and Society, 5(1), pp.3-4

European Review, special issue on the Lisbon earthquake (2006) Part I and Part II, 14(2) and (3)
    Lisbon Earthquake, Part I,
  • PDF icon

    Introduction

  • PDF icon

    Poirier, The 1755 Lisbon Disaster

  • PDF icon

    Gutscher, The Great Lisbon Earthquake and Tsunami

  • PDF icon

    Ribeiro et al, The 1755 Lisbon Earthquake

  • PDF icon

    Fuchs, The Great Earthquakes of Lisbon 1755 and Aceh 2004

  • PDF icon

    Wenzel, Earthquake Risk Reduction

  • Lisbon Earthquake, Part II
  • PDF icon

    Araujo, European Public Opinion and the Lisbon Earthquake

  • PDF icon

    Bassnett, Faith, Doubt, Aid and Prayer

  • PDF icon

    Carvalhãu Buescu, Seeing Too Much

  • PDF icon

    Adamo, Constructing an Event

  • PDF icon

    D’Haen, On how not to be Lisbon if you want to be modern

  • PDF icon

    Larsen, The Lisbon earthquake and the Scientific Turn

Gerrard, Christopher, Paolo Forlin and Peter J. Brown (2020) Waiting for the End of the World? New Perspectives on Natural Disasters in Medieval Europe (Milton: Taylor & Francis)
  • PDF icon

    1. Researching Natural Disasters in the Later Middle Ages

  • PDF icon

    2. Rituals of Resilience

  • PDF icon

    3. Medieval Earthquakes in Italy

  • PDF icon

    4. Seismic Adaptation in the Latin Churches of Cyprus

  • PDF icon

    5. Architectural Heritage and Ancient Earthquakes in Italy

  • PDF icon

    19. Catalogue of Medieval Disasters

Jack, Malcolm (2005) ‘Destruction and Degeneration: Lisbon, 1755,’ in Theodore E.D. Braun and John B. Radner (eds.) The Lisbon Earthquake of 1755: Representations and Reactions

Krüger, Fred et al (2015) Cultures and Disasters: Understanding Cultural Framings in Disaster Risk Reduction (Routledge)
  • PDF icon

    Intro: Exploring the links between cultures and disasters

  • PDF icon

    1. Framing Disaster in the ‘Global Village’

  • PDF icon

    2. Conversations in Catastrophe

  • PDF icon

    3. Design by Disasters

  • PDF icon

    4. Learning from History?

  • PDF icon

    5. Disasters, Climate Change and Culture

  • PDF icon

    6. Cultures and Contra-Cultures

  • PDF icon

    7. The Cultural Sense of Disasters

  • PDF icon

    8. Religion and Belief Systems

  • PDF icon

    9. The Deep Roots of Nightmares

  • PDF icon

    10. Celebrity Culture, Entertainment Values and Disaster

  • PDF icon

    11. Disaster Management Culture in Bangladesh

  • PDF icon

    12. Culture’s Role in Risk Reduction

PDF icon

Mauch, Christof and Christian Pfister (eds.) (2009) Natural Disasters, Cultural Responses: Case studies toward a global environmental history (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books) SEE SIDEBAR

PDF icon

Fuchs, Karl (2004) ‘The Great Earthquakes of Lisbon 1755 and Aceh 2004,’ European Review, 14(2), pp.207-219

PDF icon

Pupavac, Vanessa (2014) ‘Natural Disasters: Trauma, Political Contestation and Potential to Precipitate Social Change,’ in E. Resende & D. Budryte (eds.) Memory and Trauma in International Relations (Abingdon, Routledge), pp.74-91

PDF icon

Pupavac, Vanessa and Mladen Pupavac (2020) Changing European Visions of Disaster and Development: Rethinking Faust’s Humanism (London: Rowan & Littlefield) SEE SIDEBAR

Rozario, Kevin (2007) The Culture of Calamity: Disaster and the Making of Modern America (Chicago: University of Chicago Press)

PDF icon

Santos, Angela, Mariana Correia, Carlos Loureiro, Paulo Fernandes and Nuno Marques da Costa (2019) ‘The Historical Reconstruction of the 1755 Earthquake and Tsunami in Downtown Lisbon, Portugal,’ Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 7(7), from p.208


back-to-top

 

3. Disasters, Modernity and Development

Seminar Questions

  • How can development help prevent disasters?
  • How have models of development changed over the last seventy years?
  • What implications do changing models of development have for protection against disasters?
  • How have societies protected themselves against floods?
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of dams for protection against disaster and as part of development?

Essential Reading

PDF icon

Nazarenko, Kirill B. and Maria Smirnova (2019) ‘Șt Petersburg Port through Disasters: Challenges and Resilience,’ Journal of Urban History, pp.1-21

Pupavac, Vanessa and Mladen Pupavac (2020) Changing European Visions of Disaster and Development: Rethinking Faust’s Humanism (London: Rowan & Littlefield) Chapters 3 and 5
  • PDF icon

    Ch.3 Faustian Work and ‘The Hope of the Poor’

  • PDF icon

    Ch.5 Nikola Tesla’s Faustian Dream

SEE SIDEBAR

Additional Reading

PDF icon

Alesina, Alberto and David Dollar (2000) ‘Who Gives Foreign Aid to Whom and Why?’ Journal of Economic Growth, 5(1), pp.33-63

PDF icon

Collins, Andrew E. (2009) Disaster and Development (Abingdon: Routledge) SEE SIDEBAR

PDF icon

Dills, Randall (2014) ‘Cracks in the Granite: Paternal Care, The Imperial Façade and the Limits of Authority in the 1824 St Petersburg Flood,’ Journal of Urban History, 40(3), pp.479–496

PDF icon

Gasper, Des and Thanh-Dam Truong (2005) ‘Deepening Development Ethics: From Economism to Human Development to Human Security,’ European Journal of Development Research, 17(3), pp.372-384

PDF icon

Klein, Naomi (2005) ‘The Rise of Disaster Capitalism: Rebuilding is now the primary purpose of the reconstruction industry,’ The Nation, 14 April

PDF icon

Klein, Naomi (2008) The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism (London: Penguin) SEE SIDEBAR

PDF icon

Kosterin N.V. and V. I. Shchekachikhin (2017) ‘St. Petersburg Flood Protection Barrier System: First Years of Operation,’ Power Technology Engineering, 51(4), pp.371-376

PDF icon

Pupavac, Vanessa (2010) ‘The Consumerism-Development-Security Nexus.’ Security Dialogue, 41(6), pp.691-713

PDF icon

Neumann, B., Athanasios Vafeidis, Juliane Zimmermann and Robert J. Nicholls (2015) ‘Future Coastal Population Growth and Exposure to Sea-Level Rise and Coastal Flooding – A Global Assessment,’ PLOS One, 10(3).

PDF icon

Pelling, M. (2007) The Vulnerability of Cities: Natural Disasters and Social Resilience (London: Earthscan) SEE SIDEBAR

Linnerooth-Bayer, Joanne and Aniello Amendola (2003) Risk Analysis, Special Issue on Flood Risks in Europe, 23(3), pp.537-639
  • PDF icon

    Introduction to Special Issue

  • PDF icon

    Bronstert, Floods and Climate Change

  • PDF icon

    Kaczmarek, The Impact of Climate Variability on Flood Risk in Poland

  • PDF icon

    Mitchell, European River Floods in a Changing World

  • PDF icon

    Toll, Adapting to Climate

  • PDF icon

    Vari et al, Flood Risk Management in Hungary

  • PDF icon

    Freeman & Pflug, Infrastructure in Developing and Transition Countries

  • PDF icon

    Croson, Sovereign Cat Bonds and Infrastructure Project Financing

  • PDF icon

    Kunreuther, The Financial Management of Catastrophic Flood Risks in Emerging Economies


back-to-top

 

4. Resilience and Capacity Building

Seminar Questions

  • What is Resilience?
  • What makes people/the environment resilient post disaster?
  • Resilience has become a buzzword for disaster relief agencies – is the use of this term credible?

Essential Reading

PDF icon

Berke, Philip .R. and Thomas J. Campanella (2006) ‘Planning for Post-disaster Resiliency,’ The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 604(March), pp.192-207

PDF icon

Eadie, Pauline (2019) ‘Typhoon Yolanda and Post-disaster Resilience: Problems and Challenges,’ Asia Pacific Viewpoint, 60(1), pp.94-107

PDF icon

Eadie, Pauline, Maria Ela Atienza and May Tan-Mullins (2020) ‘Livelihood and Vulnerability in the Wake of Typhoon Yolanda: Lessons of Community and Resilience,’ Natural Hazards, 103(1), pp.211-230

PDF icon

Manyena, Siambabala B. (2006) ‘The Concept of Resilience Revisited,’ Disasters, 30(4), pp.434-450

PDF icon

Weichselgartner, J. and I. Kelman (2014) ‘Geographies of Resilience: Challenges and Opportunities of a Descriptive Concept,’ Progress in Human Geography, 39(3), pp.249-267

Additional Reading

PDF icon

Adger, W. Neil et al (2005) ‘Social-Ecological Resilience to Coastal Disasters,’ ScienceVol. 309, pp.1036-1039

PDF icon

Alcayna, T. et al ‘Resilience and Disaster Trends in the Philippines: Opportunities for National and Local Capacity Building,’ PLOS Current Disasters, Edition 1, 14 September

Aldrich, Daniel (2012) Building Resilience: Social Capital in Post-disaster Recovery (Chicago: University of Chicago Press)

PDF icon

Aldrich, Daniel and Michelle Meyer (2015) ‘Social Capital and Community Resilience,’ American Behavioural Scientist, 59, pp.254-269

PDF icon

Alexander, D. E. (2013) ‘Resilience and disaster risk reduction: an etymological journey,’ Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 13(11), pp.2707-2716

PDF icon

Bankoff, Greg (2003) Cultures of Disaster: Society and Natural Hazard in the Philippines (London and New York: Routledge) SEE SIDEBAR

Chandler, David (2014) Resilience: The Governance of Complexity (London and New York: Routledge)
  • PDF icon

    1. Introduction: The rise of Resilience

  • PDF icon

    2. Governing Complexity

  • PDF icon

    3. Resilience

  • PDF icon

    4. The Politics of Limits

  • PDF icon

    5. The ‘Everyday’ Policy Solution

PDF icon

Chandler, David (2012) ‘Resilience and Human Security: The Post-interventionist Paradigm,’ Security Dialogue, 43(3), pp.213-229

PDF icon

Chu, Haoran and Janet Z. Yang (2019) ‘Building Disaster Resilience Using Social Messaging Networks: The WeChat Community in Houston, Texas during Hurricane Harvey,’ Disasters, 44(4), pp.726-752

PDF icon

Cote, Muriel and Andrea J. Nightingale (2012) ‘Resilience Thinking Meets Social Theory: Situating Social Change in Socio-Ecological Systems (SES) Research,’ Progress in Human Geography, 36(4), pp.475-489

PDF icon

Cutter, Susan L. et al (2008) ‘A Place-based Model for Understanding Community Resilience to Natural Disasters,’ Global Environmental Change, 18(4), pp.598–606

PDF icon

Ensor, Jonathan, John Forrester and Nilufar Matin (2018) ‘Bringing Rights into Resilience: Revealing Complexities of Climate Risks and Social Conflicts,’ Disasters, 42(S2), pp.287-305

PDF icon

Keck, Markus and Patrick Sakdapolrak (2013) ‘What is Social Resilience? Lessons Learned and Ways Forward,’ Erkunde, 67(1), pp.5-19

PDF icon

Gaillard, J.C. (2015) People’s Response to Disasters in the Philippines: Vulnerability, Capacities and Resilience (New York: Palgrave MacMillan) SEE SIDEBAR

Krüger, Fred et al (2015) Cultures and Disasters: Understanding Cultural Framings in Disaster Risk Reduction (Routledge)
  • PDF icon

    Intro: Exploring the links between cultures and disasters

  • PDF icon

    1. Framing Disaster in the ‘Global Village’

  • PDF icon

    2. Conversations in Catastrophe

  • PDF icon

    3. Design by Disasters

  • PDF icon

    4. Learning from History?

  • PDF icon

    5. Disasters, Climate Change and Culture

  • PDF icon

    6. Cultures and Contra-Cultures

  • PDF icon

    7. The Cultural Sense of Disasters

  • PDF icon

    8. Religion and Belief Systems

  • PDF icon

    9. The Deep Roots of Nightmares

  • PDF icon

    10. Celebrity Culture, Entertainment Values and Disaster

  • PDF icon

    11. Disaster Management Culture in Bangladesh

  • PDF icon

    12. Culture’s Role in Risk Reduction

PDF icon

Holling, C. (1973) ‘Resilience and Stability of Ecological Systems,’ Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 4, pp.1-23

PDF icon

Pelling, M. (2007) The Vulnerability of Cities: Natural Disasters and Social Resilience (London: Earthscan) SEE SIDEBAR

PDF icon

Saja, A.M. Aslam et al (2018) ‘An Inclusive and Adaptive Framework for Measuring Social Resilience to Disasters,’ International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 28, pp.862-873

PDF icon

Tan-Mullins, May, Pauline Eadie and Maria Ela Atienza (2020) ‘Evolving Social Capital and Networks in the Post-disaster Rebuilding Process,’ Asia Pacific Viewpoint, pp.1-16

PDF icon

Walch, Colin (2018) ‘Typhoon Haiyan: Pushing the Limits of Resilience? The effect of Land Inequality on Resilience and Disaster Risk Reduction Policies in the Philippines,’ Critical Asian Studies, 50(1), pp.122-135

PDF icon

Weichselgartner, J and I. Kelman (2014) ‘Geographies of Resilience: Challenges and Opportunities of a Descriptive Concept,’ Progress in Human Geography, 39(3), pp.249-267

back-to-top

 

5. International Frameworks for Disaster Risk Reduction and Management

Seminar Questions

  • How and why did the Hyogo Framework for Action and the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction come into being?
  • What are the priorities for action and how are they monitored?
  • What is the difference between recovery and rehabilitation?

Essential Reading

PDF icon

Kaji, Misako (2017) ‘Disaster Risk Reduction – Japanese Initiatives in the World Agenda,’ Asia-Pacific Review, 24(1), pp.58-73

PDF icon

UNDRR (2015) Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, Geneva

PDF icon

United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR) (2005) ‘Hyogo Declaration’, World Conference on Disaster Reduction 18-22 January 2005, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan

PDF icon

Wahlström, Margareta (2015) ‘New Sendai Framework Strengthens Focus on Reducing Disaster Risk,’ International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, 6(2), pp.200-201

PDF icon

Wisner, Ben et al (2012) The Routledge Handbook of Disaster Risk Reduction, Chapter 50, ‘International Planning Systems for Disaster,’ pp.603-616

Additional Reading

PDF icon

Brown Munene, Martin et al (2018) ‘Adaptive Governance as a Catalyst for Transforming the Relationship between Development and Disaster Risk through the Sendai Framework?’ International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 28, pp.653-663

PDF icon

Faivre, Nicolas et al (2018) ‘Translating the Sendai Framework into Action: The EU Approach to Ecosystem-based Disaster Risk Reductio,’ International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 32, pp.4-10

PDF icon

Forino, Giuseppe, Jason von Meding and Graham Brewer (2015) ‘A Conceptual Governance Framework for Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction Integration,’ International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, 6(4), pp.372-384

PDF icon

Kelman, Ilan (2015) ‘Climate Change and the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction,’ International Journal for Disaster Risk Science, 6(2), pp117-127

PDF icon

Mercer, Jessica (2010) ‘Disaster Risk Reduction or Climate Change Adaptation: Are we Reinventing the Wheel?’ Journal of International Development, 22(2), pp.247-264

PDF icon

Szczepanska, K. (2017) ‘Japanese Civil Society in Global Governance: The Case of 2015 UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction,’ journal of Civil Society, 13(2), pp.166-183

PDF icon

United Nations (2015) ‘Sendai: UN conference adopts new, people-centred disaster risk reduction strategy,’ UN News

PDF icon

Zaidi, R. Zehra (2018) ‘Beyond the Sendai Indicators: Application of a Cascading Risk Lens for the Improvement of Loss Data Indicators for Slow-onset Hazards and Small-scale Disasters,’ International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 30(B), pp.306-314


back-to-top

 

6. State Responses to Disasters

Seminar Questions

  • What drives state-led, state-sponsored humanitarian intervention in the aftermath of disasters?
  • Have national and regional disaster risk reduction strategies been proactive or reactive? Give examples

Essential Reading

PDF icon

Ahrens, Joachim and Patrick Rudolph (2006) ‘The Importance of Governance in Risk Reduction and Disaster Management,’ Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 14(1), pp.207-220

PDF icon

Howe, Brendan and Geehyun Bang (2017) ‘Nargis and Haiyan: The Politics of Natural Disaster Management in Myanmar and the Philippines,’ Asian Studies Review, 41(1), 58-78

PDF icon

Wisner, Ben et al (eds.) (2012) The Routledge Handbook of Disaster Risk Reduction, Chapter 51, ‘National Planning and Disaster’

Additional Reading

PDF icon

Alesina, Alberto and David Dollar (2000) ‘Who Gives Foreign Aid to Whom and Why?’ Journal of Economic Growth, 5(1), pp.33-63

PDF icon

Bankoff, Greg and Dorothea Hilhorst (2009) ‘The Politics of Risk in the Philippines: Comparing State and NGO Perceptions of Disaster Management,’ Disasters, 33(4), pp.686-704

PDF icon

Bellamy, Alex J. and Beeson, Mark (2010) ‘The Responsibility to Protect in Southeast Asia: Can ASEAN Reconcile Humanitarianism and Sovereignty?’ Asian Security 6(3), pp.262-279

PDF icon

Clinton, William J. (2006) Key Propositions for Building Back Better: Lessons Learned from Tsunami Recovery, Office of the UN Secretary General’s Special Envoy for Tsunami Recovery, New York. Available at: https://www.preventionweb.net/files/2054_VL108301.pdf Accessed 1 March 2021

PDF icon

Esteban, M., V. Tsimopoulou, T. Mikami, N.Y. Yun, A. Suppasri, T. Shibayama (2013) ‘Recent Tsunamis Events and Preparedness: Development of Tsunami Awareness in Indonesia, Chile and Japan,’ International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 5 (Sept), pp.84-97

PDF icon

Ha, Kyoo-Man (2015) ‘Four models on globalizing disaster management in the Asia-Pacific region: a comparative perspective,’ The Pacific Review 28(2), pp.211-235

PDF icon

Loevy, Karin (2015) ‘The Legal Politics of Jurisdiction: Understanding ASEAN’s Role in Myanmar’s Disaster, Cyclone Nargis (2008),’ Asian Journal of International Law, 5(1), pp.55-93

PDF icon

Nair, Sheila (2013) ‘Governance, Representation and International Aid,’ Third World Quarterly 34(4), pp.630-652

PDF icon

Pennisi di Floristella, Angela (2016) ‘Dealing with Natural Disasters: Risk society and ASEAN – a new approach to disaster management,’ The Pacific Review 29(2), pp.283-305

PDF icon

Rigg, Jonathan, Lisa Law, May Tan-Mullins and Carl Grundy-Warr (2015) ‘The Indian Ocean Tsunami: Socio-economic impacts in Thailand,’ The Geographical Journal, 171, pp.374-379

PDF icon

Sedfrey, J. et al (2016) ‘Of Timelines and Timeliness: Lessons from Typhoon Haiyan in early disaster response,’ Disasters, 40(4), pp.644-667

PDF icon

Simm, Gabrielle (2018) ‘Disaster Response in Southeast Asia: The ASEAN Agreement on Disaster Response and Emergency Management,’ Asian Journal of International Law 8, pp.166-142

PDF icon

Tan-Mullins, May et al (2007) ‘Re-mapping the Politics of Aid: The changing structures and networks of humanitarian assistance in post-tsunami Thailand,’ Progress in Development Studies, 7(4), pp.327-344

PDF icon

Watson, Iain (2017) ‘Resilience and Disaster Risk Reduction: reclassifying diversity and national identity in post-earthquake Nepal,’ Third World Quarterly, 38(2), pp.483-504


back-to-top

 

7. Non-governmental Responses to Disasters

Seminar Questions

  • What codes of ethics should inform NGO work? Are NGO responses to disasters any more effective and accountable than those of governmental actors. What are their strengths and weaknesses? Give examples of good and bad practice.
  • To what extent have INGOs and local community-based organisations (CBOs) created positive synergies? Give examples of success and failure.

Essential Reading

PDF icon

Duffield, Mark, Joanna Macrae and Devon Curtis (2001) ‘Editorial: Politics and Humanitarian Aid,’ Disasters, 25(4), pp.269-274

PDF icon

Barber, Martin and Cameron Bowie (2008) ‘How International NGOs Could Do Less Harm and More Good,’ Development in Practice, 18(6), pp.748-754

Additional Reading

PDF icon

Bankoff, Greg and Dorothea Hilhorst (2009) ‘The Politics of Risk in the Philippines: Comparing state and NGO perceptions of disaster management,’ Disasters, 33(4), pp.686-704

PDF icon

BBC (2018) ‘Oxfam Haiti Allegations: How the scandal unfolded’. Available at: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-43112200

PDF icon

Brockington, Dan (2014) ‘The Production and Construction of Celebrity Advocacy in International Development,’ Third World Quarterly, 35(1), pp.88-108

PDF icon

Cooley, Alexander and James Ron (2002) ‘The NGO Scramble: Organisational insecurity and the political economy of transnational action,’ International Security, 27(1), pp.5-39

PDF icon

Djankov, Simeon, Jose G. Montalvo and Marta Reynal-Querol (2009) ‘Aid with Multiple Personalities,’ Journal of Comparative Economics, 37(2), pp.217-229

PDF icon

Duffield, Mark (2012) ‘Challenging Environments: Danger, Resilience and the Aid Industry,’ Security Dialogue, 43(5), pp.475-492

PDF icon

Gasper, Des and Thanh-Dam Truong (2005) ‘Deepening Development Ethics: From Economism to Human Development to Human Security,’ European Journal of Development Research 17(3), pp.372-384

PDF icon

Hesselman, Marlies and Lottie Lane (2017) ‘Disasters and Non-state Actors: Human rights-based approaches,’ Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal 26(5), pp.526-539

PDF icon

Hopgood, Stephen (2008) ‘Saying “No” to Wal-Mart? Money and Morality in Professional Humanitarianism,’ Chapter 4 in Barnett, M. and Thomas G. Weiss (eds) (2008) Humanitarianism in Question: Politics, Power, Ethics (Cornell University Press), pp.98-123 SEE SIDEBAR

PDF icon

Iizuka, Akiko (2018) ‘The Nature and Characteristics of Japanese NGOs in International Disaster Response,’ Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal 27(3), pp.306-320

PDF icon

Lister, Sarah (2002) ‘Scaling-up” in Emergencies: British NGOs after Hurricane Mitch,’ Disasters 25(1), pp.36-47

PDF icon

Lu, Yi and Jinping Xu (2014) ‘NGO Collaboration in Community Post-disaster Reconstruction: Field research following the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China,’ Disasters 39(2), pp.258-278

PDF icon

Nair, Sheila (2013) ‘Governance, Representation and International Aid,’ Third World Quarterly, 34(4), pp.630-652

PDF icon

Riddell, Roger (2007) Does Foreign Aid really Work? (Oxford: Oxford University Press) SEE SIDEBAR

PDF icon

Rocha, José Luis and Ian Christoplos (2001) ‘Disaster Mitigation and Preparedness on the Nicaraguan Post-Mitch Agenda,’ Disasters, 2001, 25(3), pp.240–250

PDF icon

Rubenstein, Jennifer C. (2008) ‘The Distributive Commitments of International NGOs,’ Chapter 9 in Barnett, M. and Thomas G. Weiss (eds), Humanitarianism in Question: Politics, Power, Ethics,’ pp.215-234 SEE SIDEBAR

PDF icon

Scharffscher, Kristin S. (2011) ‘Disempowerment through Disconnection: Local women’s disaster response and international relief in post-tsunami Batticaloa,’ Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, 20(1), pp.63-81

PDF icon

Sedfrey, J. et al(2016) ‘Of Timelines and Timeliness: Lessons from Typhoon Haiyan in early disaster response,’ Disasters, 40(4), pp.644-667

PDF icon

Tan-Mullins, M. et al ‘Re-mapping the Politics of Aid: The changing structures and networks of humanitarian assistance in post-tsunami Thailand,’ Progress in Development Studies 7(4), pp.327-344


back-to-top

 

8. Changing Social Understandings of Vulnerability and Risk

Blurb

Seminar Questions

  • What is vulnerability? Who is most vulnerable to disasters and why?
  • Why does social class, ethnicity/race or gender matter in relation to disasters?

Essential Reading

Wisner, Ben et al (2012) The Routledge Handbook of Disaster Risk Reduction (Routledge) Section on Vulnerabilities and Capacities

PDF icon

Adger, W. Neil (2006) ‘Vulnerability,’ Global Environmental Change 16(3), pp.268-281

PDF icon

Gaillard, J.C. et al (2017) ‘Beyond Men and Women: A critical perspective on gender and disaster,’ Disasters, 41(3), pp.429-447

Additional Reading

PDF icon

Adger, W. Neil et al (2005) ‘Social-Ecological Resilience to Coastal Disasters,’ Science, Vol.309, pp.1036-1039

PDF icon

Bankoff, Greg and Dorothea Hilhorst (2009) ‘The Politics of Risk in the Philippines: Comparing state and NGO perspectives of disaster management,’ Disasters, 33(4), pp.686-704

PDF icon

Cupples, Julie (2007) ‘Gender and Hurricane Mitch: Reconstructing subjectivities after disaster,’ Disasters, 31(2), pp.155-175

PDF icon

Dalisay, Soledad Natalia and Mylene T. De Guzman (2016) ‘Risk and Culture: The Case of Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines,’ Disaster Prevention and Management, 25(5), pp.27-47

PDF icon

Delica-Willison, Z. and R. Willison (2004) ‘Vulnerability Reduction: A task for the vulnerable people themselves,’ in Bankoff, G. et al (eds) Mapping Vulnerability: Disasters, Development and People (London: Earthscan), pp.144-158 SEE SIDEBAR

PDF icon

Enarson, Elaine and P. G. Dhar Chakrabarti (eds) (2009) Women, Gender and Disaster: Global issues and initiatives (New Delhi: Sage). SEE SIDEBAR

PDF icon

Fothergill, A. and L. Peek (2004) ‘Poverty and Disasters in the United States: A review of recent sociological findings,’ Natural Hazards, 32, pp.89-110

PDF icon

Gaillard, J. (2010) ‘Vulnerability, Capacity and Resilience: Perspectives for climate development policy,’ Journal of International Development. 22(2), pp.218-232

PDF icon

Gaillard, J.C. (2015) People’s Response to Disasters in the Philippines: Vulnerability, Capacities and Resilience (New York: Palgrave MacMillan) SEE SIDEBAR

PDF icon

Henrich, Liv, John McClure and Emma Doyle (2018) ‘Perceptions of Risk Characteristics of Earthquakes Compared to Other Hazards and their Impact on Risk Tolerance,’ Disasters, 42(4), pp.761-768

PDF icon

Kammerbauer, M. and J. Minnery (2018) ‘Risk Communication and Risk Perception: Lessons from the 2011 floods in Brisbane,’ Disasters, 43(1), pp.110-134

PDF icon

Nair, Sheila (2013) ‘Governance, Representation and International Aid,’ Third World Quarterly 34(4), pp.630-652

PDF icon

Rigg, Jonathan, Lisa Law, May Tan-Mullins and Carl Grundy-Warr (2015) ‘The Indian Ocean Tsunami: Socio-economic impacts in Thailand,’ The Geographical Journal, 171, pp.374-379

PDF icon

Rodríguez, Havidán et al (2006) ‘A Snapshot of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami: Societal impacts and consequences,’ Disaster Prevention and Management, 15(1), pp.163-177

PDF icon

Thomalla, Frank et al> (2006) ‘Reducing Hazard Vulnerability: Towards a common approach between disaster risk reduction and climate adaptation,’ Disasters, 30(1), pp.39-48

PDF icon

UN-Habitat (2010) ‘The Challenge of Slums: Global report of human settlements 2003 (revised and updated version 2010). Available at: https://www.un.org/ruleoflaw/files/Challenge%20of%20Slums.pdf

PDF icon

Usamah, Muhibuddin et al (2015) ‘Can the Vulnerable be Resilient? Co-existence of vulnerability and disaster resilience: informal settlements in the Philippines,’ International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 10(A), pp.178-189

PDF icon

Vaux, Tony (2006) ‘Humanitarian Trends and Dilemmas,’ Development in Practice, 16(3-4), pp.240-254

PDF icon

Wenar, Leif (2006) ‘Accountability in International Development Aid,’ Ethics & International Affairs, 20(1), pp.1-23

PDF icon

Wisner, B. and Luce, H. (1993) ‘Disaster Vulnerability: Scale: Power, and Daily Life,’ GeoJournal, 30(2), pp.127-140

PDF icon

World Risk Reports (2020) Bündis Entwicklung Hilft and United Nations University – EHS: Berlin. Available at https://weltrisikobericht.de/english/ (Multiple years available)


back-to-top

 

9. Society and Disasters: Addressing Complex Emergencies

Seminar Questions

  • What is meant by a complex political emergency?
  • How do political or social conflicts complicate responses to disasters?
  • To what extent may (a) digital humanitarianism or (b) human rights frameworks address the challenges of addressing complex political emergencies?

Essential Reading

PDF icon

Duffield, Mark (2012) ‘Risk Management and the Bunkering of the Aid Industry,’ Development Dialogue, No.58, pp.21-36

PDF icon

Harris, Katie, David Keen and Tom Mitchell (2013) When Disasters and Conflicts Collide, Overseas Development Institute, 2013

Additional Reading

PDF icon

Albala-Bertrand, Jose Miguel (200) ‘What is a Complex Humanitarian Emergency? An analytical essay,’ QMUL Working Papers, No.420

PDF icon

Alexander, David (2006) ‘Globalisation of Disaster: Trends, problems and dilemmas,’ Journal of International Affairs, 59(2), pp.1-22

PDF icon

Buchanan-Smith, Margie (2004) ‘Natural Disasters Amid Complex Political Emergencies,’ Humanitarian Practice Network, Overseas Development Institute

PDF icon

Corpus Ong, Jonathan and Pamela Combinido (2018) ‘Local Aid Workers in the Digital Humanitarian Project: Between “second class citizens” and “entrepreneurial survivors”, Critical Asian Studies, 50(1), pp.86-102

PDF icon

Duffield, Mark (2000) ‘The New Humanitarianism,’ in Global Governance and the new wars (London: Zed Books), pp.75-107 SEE SIDEBAR

PDF icon

Akhmatova, Dzhennet-Mari & Malika-Sofi Akhmatova (2020) ‘Promoting Digital Humanitarian Action in Protecting Human Rights: hope or hype,’ Journal of International Humanitarian Action 5(6), 1-7

PDF icon

Meier, Patrick (2015) Digital Humanitarianism: How big data is changing the face of humanitarian response (London: Taylor & Francis) SEE SIDEBAR

PDF icon

Duffield, Mark (2016) ‘The Resilience of the Ruins: Towards a critique of digital humanitarianism,’ Resilience, 4(3), pp.147-165

PDF icon

Duffield, Mark (2018) Post Humanitarianism (Cambridge: Polity) SEE SIDEBAR

PDF icon

Graham, Stephen (2012) ‘Foucault’s Boomerang: The new military urbanism,’ Development Dialogue, No.58, pp.37-48

PDF icon

Macrae, Joanna and Nicholas Leader (2000) ‘Shifting Sands: The search for “coherence” between political and humanitarian responses to complex emergencies,’ Report HPG Report 8, Humanitarian Policy Group, Overseas Development Institute

PDF icon

Ramalingam, Ben (2013) Aid on the Edge of Chaos: Rethinking international cooperation in a complex world (Oxford: OUP) SEE SIDEBAR

PDF icon

Vaux, Tony (2000) The Selfish Altruist: Relief work in famine and war (London: Earthscan) SEE SIDEBAR


back-to-top

 

10. Conclusions

A recap on key themes and issues examined in the module

Seminar Questions

  • If you were a disaster relief practitioner, what issues would you prioritise and why in (a) the relief phase and (b) the recovery phase?
  • Why are similar mistakes made in disaster after disaster?

back-to-top

 

Coursework

Coursework 1

Submission deadline:

Coursework 2

Submission deadline:

Coursework 3

Submission deadline:

back-to-top