Public Opinion and International Security
University of Cambridge (2011)
- Introductory Reading
Towle, Philip (2009) Going to War: British Debates from Wilberforce to Blair (Palgrave Macmillan)
Everts, Philip & Pierangelo Isernia (2001) Public Opinion and the International Use of Force
2. The Impact of Basic Motivation on Opinions Concerning the Use of Force
3. German Public Opinion and the Use of Force in the Early 1990s
4. Italian Public Opinion and the International Use of Force
5. Risky Missions: Dutch Public Opinion on Peacekeeping in the Balkans
6. Ireland: Neutrality and the International Use of Force
7. Moving Away From War: Israeli’s security beliefs in the post-Oslo era
8. French public perceptions and their impact on the policy-making process
9. The Myth of the Reactive Public: US public attitudes on military fatalities
10. War Without Bloodshed? Public opinion and the conflict over Kosovo
11. Conclusions: What have we learned and where do we go from here?
Lemish, Dafna & Maya Gotz (eds) (2007) Children and the Media in Times of War and Conflict (Hampton Press)
1. “I Know that it’s Bush’s Fault”
2. US Children negotiating the protective silence of parents
3. “This is Our War” – Israeli children domesticating the war in Iraq
4. Dutch children’s emotional reactions to news about the Iraq War
5. Children’s writings on the Internet about the Iraq War
6. Talking about my generation
7. How TV producers dealt with the war in Iraq
8. “What good came of it at last?”
9. “Operation Iraqi Freedom” in the children’s news
10. Israeli children’s TV: going to war with Iraq
11. Developing children’s understanding of conflict
12. US children in the Iraq War news coverage
13. TV news and coping
14. Social judgments in Israeli and Arab children
15. “As though there is peace”
1. Politicization and the Reaction of the Oligarchies
Politicisation, democratisation and the fear of public influence
- Do the public have ‘the right’ to influence foreign policy in a democracy?
- How strong was the opposition to popular political influence in the country where you live?
- Can you think of occasions where public pressure has caused international relations disasters?
Hobson, John Atkinson (1901) The Psychology of Jingoism (Kessinger Publishing) (large PDF file)
Playne, Caroline E. (1925) The Neuroses of the Nations (Allen & Unwin)
Lerner, Daniel (1958) The Passing of Traditional Society: Modernizing the Middle East (The Free Press)
Dicey, Edward (1867) ‘War and Progress,’ Macmillan’s Magazine, Vol.XVI (May-Oct
2. Elites and Masses
The early years of opinion polls and academic analyses of polls
- Can the public make decisions about international affairs when they are often ignorant of the facts?
- Is Mueller right to argue that political prejudice, age and educational level are the factors which determine attitudes towards international politics? Is this true outside the United States?
- Are newspapers a good guide to public opinion?
Lippmann, Walter (1922) reprinted 1997, Public Opinion
Benda, Julien (1928) reprinted 1979, The Treason of the Intellectuals
Ortega y Gasset, José (1930) reprinted 1963, The Revolt of the Masses
Oldendick, Robert & Barbara Bardes (1982) ‘Mass and Elite Foreign Policy Opinion,’ The Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol.46, No.3 (Autumn 1982), pp.368-382
3. First Assessments
How do children learn about politics and international affairs and what do they learn?
- Should parents and broadcasters try to protect children from watching programmes about conflict and war?
- Should governments and media censor the news to encourage balance and for reasons of taste?
- How far should teachers try to influence children’s views on politics and conflict?
Harrison, Tom & Charles Madge (1940) War Begins at Home
Cantril, Hadley (1944) Gauging Public Opinion
Calder, Angus (1944) Britain by Mass Observation
Cantril, Hadley & Mildred Strunk (1951) Public Opinion 1939-1946
Gallup, G.H. (1976) The Gallup International Public Opinion Polls: Great Britain 1937-1975
4. Recent Analyses
Attitudes towards warfare from Suez to Iraq in 2003
- Did public opinion play any part in beginning or ending the Suez campaign?
- Did the media really drive the Unites States out of Vietnam?
- Is there any evidence that European or US public opinion is intrinsically more robust or pacifistic?
Mueller, John (1973) War, Presidents and Public Opinion (New York: John Wiley & Sons)
Raviv, A. et al (1999) How Children Understand War and Peace (New York: John Wiley & Sons)
Everts, Philip & Pierangelo Isernia (2001) Public Opinion and the International Use of Force (Routledge)
Lemish, Dafna & Maya Gotz (2007) Children and the Media in Times of War and Conflict (Hampton Press)
Fraser, Morris (1973) Children in Conflict (Penguin)
Bogart, Lee (1972) Silent Politics: Polls and the awareness of public opinion (John Wiley & Sons)
Smith, Tom W. (1984) ‘The Polls: gender and attitudes towards violence,’ The Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol.48, No.1, pp.384-395
Sobel, Richard (2001) The Impact of Public Opinion on US Foreign Policy Since Vietnam (Oxford UP)
Ashford, Sheena & Noel W. Timms (1992) What Europe Thinks (Dartmouth Publishing)
Lai, Brian & Dan Reiter (2005) ‘Rally Round the Union Jack?, Public opinion and the use of force in the UK, 1948-2001’ International Studies, Vol.49, No.2, pp.255-272
5. Recent Wars
Responsibility to Protect (R2P) and the impact of organised public opinion
Commentary on public opinion and conflict from the Crimean War to Afghanistan
- To what extent has ‘progress’ towards R2P been influenced by public opinion?
- How accurate and complete is public perception of crises?
- How easily can public opinion be shaped to impact policies?
- Is it true to say that commentary has become more sophisticated about public opinion but that the public have not absorbed what the experts have been saying?
- Can the public be trusted by governments to guide their decisions on conflict?
Suchman, Edward, Rose Golden & Robin Williams (1953) ‘Attitudes Toward the Korean War,’ The Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol.17, No.2 (Summer), pp.171-184
Owen, Jean (1957) ‘The Polls and Newspaper Appraisals of the Suez Crisis,’ The Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol.21, No.3, pp.350-354
Erskine, Hazel (1970) ‘The Polls: Is war a mistake?’ The Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol.34, No.1, pp.134-150
Benson, John M. (1982) ‘The Polls: US military intervention,’ The Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol.46, No.4, pp.592-598
‘The Falklands War,’ Falklands Panel Survey, MORI
Mueller, John (2000) ‘Public Opinion as a Constraint on US Foreign Policy,’ (March) John Mueller website
Mueller, John (1993) ‘The Polls – A review: American public opinion and the Gulf War,’ The Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol.57, No.1, pp.80-91
Mueller, John (1984) ‘Reflections on the Vietnam Anti-War Movement and on the Curious Calm at the War’s End,’ Mueller website
MORI ‘War in Afghanistan Poll’ 11 October, 2001
Williams, Paul & Alex Bellamy (2005) ‘The Responsibility to Protect and the Crisis in Darfur,’ Security Dialogue, Vol.36, No.1 (Mar 2005), pp.27-47
Gustafson, Marc (2010) ‘Rethinking Darfur,’ Foreign Policy Briefing, No.89, Cato Institute (June 2010)
Clifford, Bob (2001) ‘Marketing Rebellion: insurgent groups, international media and NGO support,’ International Politics, Vol.38, No.3 (Sep 2001), pp.311-334
Pew Research Center (2003) ‘America’s Image Further Erodes,’ 18 March 2003
Pew Global Public Attitudes Project (2007) ‘Global Unease with Major World Powers’
de Boer, Connie (1979) ‘The Polls: Terrorism and Hijacking,’ The Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol.43, No.3, pp.410-418