International and Transitional Justice

Truth, Justice, Peace and Reconciliation after Mass Atrocities

University of Cambridge (2011)

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Course Handbook

Course Objectives

  1. Grasp the breadth of transitional justice aims, tools and dilemmas
  2. Understand the political dimensions of transitional justice
  3. Understand the legal aspects of transitional justice
  4. Be able to distinguish the legal and political arguments and use them appropriately

Lectures

1. An Introduction to Transitional Justice

Reading

Required Reading

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Report of the Secretary-General on the Rule of Law and Transitional Justice in Conflict and Post-Conflict Societies, 3 August 2004, UN Doc.S/2004/616

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Sarkin, J. & E. Daly (2004) ‘Too Many Questions, Too Few Answers: Reconciliation in transitional societies,’ Columbia Human Rights Law Review, Vol.35, No.3 (2004) pp.661-728

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Commission on Human Rights (2005) ‘Basic principles and guidelines on the right to a remedy and reparation for victims of gross violations of international human rights law and serious violations of international humanitarian law,’ Human Rights Resolution 2005/35

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Tomuschat, C. (2002) ‘Reparation for Victims of Grave Human Rights Violations,’ Tulane Journal of International & Comparative Law Vol.10 (2002) pp.157-184

Recommended Reading

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Allott, P. (2004) ‘Deliver Us from Social Evil’ (The Hague, 11 August 2004)

Kritz et. al. (1996) Transitional Justice, (US Institute of Peace Press), Volumes 1 & 2

Minow, Martha (2000) Between Vengeance and Forgiveness: facing history after genocide and mass violence (Beacon Press)

Teitel, Ruti (2002) Transitional Justice (USA: OUP)

Tutu, Desmond (2000) No Future without Forgiveness: A personal overview of South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission (London: Rider)


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2. Transitional Justice through Trials or Truth Commissions: A Comparison

Reading

Required Reading

Cryer, Friman, Robinson & Wilmshurst (2007) Introduktion to International Criminal Law and Procedure (Cambridge: CUP), Chapters 1 & 2
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    1. Introduction: What is International Criminal Law?

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    2. The Objectives of International Criminal Law

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Reisman, W.M. (1996) ‘Legal Responses to Genocide and Other Massive Violations of Human Rights,’ Law & Contemporary Problems, Vol.59, No.4, pp.75-80

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Huyse, L. (1995) ‘Justice after Transition: on the Choices Successor Elites Make in Dealing with the Past,’ Law & Social Inquiry, Vol.20, No.1, pp.51-78

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Kritz, N.J. (1996) ‘Coming to Terms with Atrocities: A Review of Accountability Mechanisms for Mass Violations of Human Rights,’ Law & Contemporary Problems, Vol.59, No.4, pp.127-152

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Landsman, S. (1996) ‘Alternative Responses to Serious Human Rights Abuses: Of Prosecution and Truth Commissions,’ Law & Contemporary Problems, Vol.59, No.4, pp.81-92

Recommended Reading

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Drumbl, M.A. (2007) Atrocity, Punishment, and International Law (Cambridge: CUP)

SEE SIDEBAR
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Anonymous (2001) ‘The Promises of International Prosecution,’ Harvard Law Review, Vol.114, No.7, pp.1943-1982

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Aukerman, Miriam J. (2002) ‘Extraordinary Evil, Ordinary Crime: A Framework for Understanding Transitional Justice,’ Harvard Human Rights Journal, Vol.15, pp.39-97

Hayner, P.B. (2001) Unspeakable Truths (New York & London: Routledge)

Simpson, G.J. (2007) Law, War & Crime: War Crimes Trials and the Re-invention of International Law (Cambridge: Polity)


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3. Human Rights Violations and International Crises

Reading

Cryer, Friman, Robinson & Wilmshurst (2007) Introduktion to International Criminal Law and Procedure (Cambridge: CUP), Chapters 10-14
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    10. Genocide

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    11. Crimes Against Humanity

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    12. War Crimes

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    13. Aggression

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    14. Transnational Crimes, Terrorism and Torture

SEE SIDEBAR
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International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, G.A. Res. 2200a (Xxi), 21 U.N. Gaor Supp. (No. 16) at 52, U.N. Doc. A/6316 (1966), 999, UNTS. 171, entered into force Mar. 23, 1976.

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UN Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, 1984

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UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, 9 December 1948, 78 UNTS 277

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Geneva Convention (III) Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, Geneva, 12 August 1949, 75 UNTS 135

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Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and Relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), 8 June 1977

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Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and Relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts (Protocol II), 8 June 1977

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Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, UN Doc. S/25704 (1993), Annex, as amended

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Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, UN Doc. S/RES/955 (1994), Annex, as amended

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Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (RS), Rome, 17 July 1998, 2187 UNTS 90


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4. The Jurisdiction of National, Hybrid and International Courts

Reading

Required Reading

Cryer, Friman, Robinson & Wilmshurst (2007) Introduktion to International Criminal Law and Procedure (Cambridge: CUP), Chapters 3,4,6,7,8 & 9
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    3. Jurisdiction

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    4. National Prosecutions of International Crimes

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    6. The History of International Criminal Prosecutions

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    7. The ad hoc International Criminal Tribunals

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    8. The International Criminal Court

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    9. Other Courts with International Elements

SEE SIDEBAR

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O’Keefe, R. (2004) ‘Universal Jurisdiction: Clarifying the Basic Concept,’ Journal of International Criminal Justice, Vol.2, No.3 (Sept) pp.735-757

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AU-EU Technical Ad Hoc Expert Group on the Principle of Universal Jurisdiction, Report, Annex to Council of the European Union, 8672/09, 16 April 2009

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Nouwen, Sarah (2006) ‘”Hybrid Courts‟: The Hybrid Category of a New Type of International Crimes Courts,’ Utrecht Law Review, Vol.2, No.2 (December), pp.190-214

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Parlett, Kate (2007) ‘Universal civil jurisdiction for torture,’ European Human Rights Law Review, Vol. pp.385-403

Recommended Reading

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Linton, S. (2001) ‘Cambodia, East Timor and Sierra Leone: Experiments in International Justice,’ Criminal Law Forum, Vol.12, No.2, pp.185-246

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Akhavan, Payam (2001) ‘Beyond Impunity: Can International Criminal Justice Prevent Future Atrocities?’ American Journal of International Law, Vol.95, No.1, pp.7-31

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Tolbert, D. (2002) ‘The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia: Unforeseen Successes and Foreseeable Shortcomings,’ Fletcher Forum of World Affairs, Vol.26, No.2 (Summer/Fall), pp.7-19

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Goldstone, R. (1996) ‘The United Nations’ War Crimes Tribunals: An Assessment,’ Connecticut Journal of International Law, Vol.12, pp.227-240

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Kamatali, Jean Marie (2003) ‘The Challenge of Linking International Criminal Justice and National Reconciliation: the Case of the ICTR,’ Leiden Journal of International Law, Vol.16, No.1, pp.115-133

Romano, C., A. Nollkaemper & J.K. Kleffner (eds) (2004) Internationalized Criminal Courts and Tribunals : Sierra Leone, East Timor, Kosovo and Cambodia (Oxford: OUP)


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5. Amnesties and Immunities

Reading

Required Reading

Cryer, Friman, Robinson & Wilmshurst (2007) Introduktion to International Criminal Law and Procedure (Cambridge: CUP), Section 2.3.1 on Amnesties and Chapter 20
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    S.2.3.1 Amnesties

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    20. Immunities

SEE SIDEBAR
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Nouwen, Sarah (2005) ‘The Special Court for Sierra Leone and the Immunity of Taylor: the Arrest Warrant Case Continued,’ Leiden Journal of International Law, Vol.18, p.645

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Roht-Arriaza, Naomi (1990) ‘State Responsibility to Investigate and Prosecute Grave Human Rights Violations in International Law,’ California Law Review, Vol. 78, No.2 (March), pp.449-513

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International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (2004) ‘General Comment No. 31: Nature of the General Legal Obligation Imposed on State Parties to the Covenant,’ CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.13, 26 May 2004

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Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Case of Velásquez Rodríguez v. Honduras, Judgment of 29 July 1988, 28 ILM (1989)

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Azanian People’s Organisation (AZAPO) and others v. President of the Republic of South Africa, Constitutional Court, 27 July 1996

Recommended Reading

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Orentlicher, Diane (1991) ‘Settling Accounts: The Duty to Prosecute Human Rights Violations of a Prior Regime,’ Yale Law Journal, Vol.100, No.8 (June) pp.2537-2615

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Orentlicher, Diane (2007) ‘”Settling Accounts‟ Revisited: Reconciling Global Norms with Local Agency,’ International Journal of Transitional Justice, Vol.1, No.1, pp.10-22

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Nino, Carlos (1991) ‘The Duty to Punish Past Abuses of Human Rights Put Into Context: the case of Argentina,’ The Yale Law Journal, Vol.100, No.8 (June), pp.2619-2640


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6. Transitional Justice: Technicalities or Politics?

Reading

Required Reading

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Nouwen, Sarah & Wouter Werner (2011) ‘Doing Justice to the Political: The International Criminal Court in Uganda and Sudan,’ European Journal of International Law, Vol.22, No.4, pp.1161-1164

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Wadell, Nicholas & Phil Clark (eds) (2008) Courting Conflict: justice, peace and the ICC in Africa (Royal African Society)

Smith, A.M. (2009) After Genocide: bringing the devil to justice (New York: Prometheus)

Arendt, Hannah (1977) Eichmann in Jerusalem: A report on the banality of evil (Harmondsworth: Penguin)


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Seminars

1. Uganda

Reading

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Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (RS), Rome, 17 July 1998, 2187 UNTS 90

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Agreement on Accountability and Reconciliation between the Government of the Republic of Uganda and the Lord’s Resistance Army/Movement, 29 June 2007 (Accountability Agreement)

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Annexure to the Agreement on Accountability and Reconciliation, 19 February 2008 (Annexure)

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ICC, Pre-Trial Chamber II, Warrant of Arrest for Joseph Kony, ICC-02/04-01/05-53, 8 July 2005 as amended on 27 September 2005

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Akhavan, Payam (2005) ‘Developments at the International Criminal Court: The Lord’s Resistance Army Case: Uganda’s Submission of the First State Referral to the International Criminal Court,’ American Journal of International Law, Vol.99, No.2 (April), pp.403-421

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Afako, Barney (2002) ‘Reconciliation and Justice: “Mato Oput” and the Amnesty Act’, in O. Lucima (ed.), Protracted Conflict, Elusive Peace (London: Accord Conciliation Resources)

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Allen, Tim (2007) ‘The International Criminal Court and the Invention of Traditional Justice in Northern Uganda,’ Politique Africaine Vol.107, pp.147-166

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Branch, Adam (2004) ‘International Justice, Local Justice,’ Dissent, Vol.51, No.3, pp.22-26

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Wierda, M. & M. Otim (2008) ‘Justice at Juba: international obligations and local demands in Northern Uganda,’ Chapter 3 in N. Waddell & P. Clarke (eds) Courting Conflict? Justice, Peace and the ICC in Africa, pp.21-28


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2. Understanding National, Mixed and International Criminal Courts

Reading

Required Reading

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Nuremberg Charter, 8 August 1945

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UN Security Resolution 827 (1993), UN Doc. S/RES/827

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Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, UN Doc. S/25704 (1993), Annex, as amended

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Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, UN Security Resolution 955 (1994), Un. Doc. S/RES/955 (1994)

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Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (RS), Rome, 17 July 1998, 2187 UNTS 90

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UN Security Council Resolution 1315, 14 August 2000, UN Doc. S/RES/1315 (2000)

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Agreement between the United Nations and the Government of Sierra Leone on the Establishment of a Special Court for Sierra Leone, Freetown, 16 January 2002

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Statute of the Special Court for Sierra Leone, 2002

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Agreement between the UN and the Royal Government of Cambodia Concerning the Prosecution under Cambodian Law of Crimes Committed During the Period of Democratic Kampuchea

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Law on the Establishment of Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia for the Prosecution of Crimes Committed During the Period of Democratic Kampuchea

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Instrument of Ratification of the Agreement between the UN and the Royal Government of Cambodia Concerning the Prosecution under Cambodian Law of Crimes Committed During the Period of Democratic Kampuchea

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UN Security Council Resolution 1244 (1999), UN Doc. Sc/Res/1244 (1999)

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UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo, Regulation No. 2000/64, Unmik/REG/2000/64, 15 December 2000

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UN Security Council Resolution 1272 (1999), UN Doc. S/RES/1272 (1999)

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UN Transitional Administration in East Timor, Regulation 15 (2000), UNTAET/REG/2000/15, 6 June 2000

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UN Security Council Resolution 1757 (2007), UN Doc. S/RES/2007/1757


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3. Immunity in the Dock

Pinochet, Yerodia, Milosevic, Taylor and Bashir

Reading

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House of Lords, Regina V Bow Street Metropolitan Stipendiary, Magistrate and Others, Ex Parte Pinochet Ugarte (No. 3), [2000] 1 AC 147

ICJ, Arrest Warrant of 11 April 2000 (Democratic Republic of the Congo v. Belgium), Judgment, ICJ Reports 2002, 3-188

Prosecutor v. Slobodan Milosevic, Decision on Preliminary Motions, 8 November 2001

Special Court for Sierra Leone, Appeals Chamber, Prosecutor against Charles Ghankay

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Taylor, Decision on Immunity from Prosecution, SCSL-2003-01-I

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Decision on the Prosecution’s Application for a Warrant of Arrest against Omar Hassan Ahmad Al Bashir, ICC-02/05-01/09-3, 4 March 2009

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Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, 1984

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Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, UN Doc. S/25704 (1993), Annex, as amended

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Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (RS), Rome, 17 July 1998, 2187 UNTS 90

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Statute of the Special Court for Sierra Leone, 2002


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